Bioelectrical muscle activity tests to rate benefits of ethnic Yakut whirligig power game versus standard strength trainings

PhD, Associate Professor T.G. Artyomenko1
PhD, Associate Professor B.P. Abramova1
Associate Professor V.N. Alekseev1
1Churapcha State Institute of Physical Culture and Sports, Churapcha, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Keywords: bioelectrical muscle activity, joint angle variation rate, ethnic Yakut Whirligig power game, elementary move, motor skill.

Background. Movement structure studies in modern sports science give a special priority to the movement biomechanics analysis based on the biomechanical test data – making it possible to fairly quantify an elementary move efficiency versus the similar moves [1-3, 6, 7]. Elementary moves are formed on a versatile motor skill base with a wide range of unspecific body conditioning/ strength exercises used at the beginner and sports basics training stages – with such exercises generally geared to develop multiple muscle groups and harmonize intermuscular coordination.

The new motor skills mastering process with the relevant central nervous system activations and responses helps economize the movement sequences and form the elementary move control hierarchy (via the efferent innervation system) that provides a basis for further progress in the sport-specific tactical and technical skills.

A motor skill is deemed to be fully mastered when it perfectly meets the sport-specific requirements for qualification for the sports excellence training stage – when a time comes to fully mobilize the accumulated individual sports mastery and resource for success. Training exercises will be customized to the actual strength progress needs of specific muscles and muscle groups responsible for the competitive motor skills and performance, to secure progress in the special motor skill [1, 2, 6]. Studies of the individual muscle strength contributions to the motor skill structure are often based on the known correlations between the muscle strength and generated bioelectrical impulse [4, 8].

One of the key muscle strength test rates for the motor skill -claimed muscles is the total square of a muscular activity electromyogram. Benefits of specific training practices in this case may be rated by a comparative analysis of the close (in the spatial and temporal terms) motor skills visualized by their bioelectrical muscle activity profiles to find the best sets of training practices for progress [2-5].

Objective of the study was to rate benefits of the ethnic Yakut Whirligig power game versus the standard conditioning (strength) practices based on the bioelectrical muscle activity tests and analyses.

Methods and structure of the study. We sampled for the purposes of the study a 19 year-old Class I cross-country ski racer qualified for the sports excellence training stage. The athlete made 5 repetitions of 5 exercises including 2 standard physical conditioning (pull-ups and chest expander pulls) and 3 Yakut Whirligig motor skills (YWMS-1/ 2/ 3).

The three Yakut Whirligig motor skills may essentially be described as follows: the athlete will take a 25cm stick with either hand 8-10cm far from the butt, insert the other butt into a rest hole and clench the stick with the other hand wherever convenient. The tree Yakut Whirligig motor skills versions differ only in the rest hole being 5cm, 45cm and 65cm high above the floor (see Figures 1-3). The athlete will rotate his body so as to make a 360О turnaround keeping the grip unchanged, stepping and stretching to avoid any contact with the floor by any part of the body other than the feet. We selected, for the purposes of the study, a key elementary move in every standard exercise including the elbow joint flexion points in the pull-up and chest expander exercises; and the 180° trunk turn point in the three Yakut Whirligig motor skills tests: see Figures 1-3.

The tests were designed to read bioelectrical muscle activity in anterior/ middle/ posterior deltoid, carpal flexor, long biceps, upper trapezius and infraspinatus muscles (8 muscles in total) using computerized Miokom (made by RITM Design Co., Taganrog, Russia) Electromyograph to obtain combined electromyograms (EMG) having processed the income signals from bipolar electrodes (REFF3010 made by FIAB, Italy) fixed on skin in the key motor points. The EMG data were processed to rate the average bioelectrical muscle activity knowing the motor-skill-related bioelectric signal amplitudes and the total EMG squares.

The motor skill phases were timed by the 60 frames/ second rated video captures, with the captured phases synchronized with the EMG profiles by the time benchmarks. We also used body marks to rate the elbow joint (shoulder-forearm) variation angles. Knowing the motor skill phase time and total variation of the joint angle for the total time, we computed the joint angle variation rate in radian/ second.

 

                          (a)                                                         (b)    

(a) Motor skill startup (elbow bending) point; (b) Motor skill completion point, MS time = 2,592 s

Figure 1. Yakut Whirligig motor skills -1 (‘Tutum argiir’) with the 5cm high rest hole

 

                          (a)                                                          (b)    

(a) Motor skill startup (elbow bending) point; (b) Motor skill completion point, Motor skill time = 1.260s

Figure 2. Yakut Whirligig motor skills -2 (‘Tutum argiir’) with the 45cm high rest hole

                            a)                                                          b)    

(a) Motor skill startup (elbow bending) point; (b) Motor skill completion point, Motor skill time = 1.237s

Figure 2. Yakut Whirligig motor skills -3 (‘Tutum argiir’) with the 65cm high hole

Results and discussion. The turnaround body movement in the Yakut Whirligig motor skills -1 (5cm high hole) execution process was most close to horizontal (Figure 1), with the execution assumed secured by extreme muscular efforts in the shoulder girdle and dorsal muscle group – versus the Yakut Whirligig motor skills -2/3 when the hole (and turnaround axis) is much higher (Figures 2, 3). We unexpectedly found, however, that the highest muscular efforts were claimed by the Yakut Whirligig motor skills -2 (with the 45cm high hole) test: see Figure 4.

 

Figure 4. Average bioelectrical muscle activity (Аav, mV) test rates for Yakut Whirligig motor skills -1/ 2/ 3 (5/ 45/ 65cm high rest holes, respectively)

Correlations of the muscles-specific bioelectrical muscle activity test rates (and training effects) in hole-height-varying Yakut Whirligig motor skills -1/ 2/ 3 tests versus the standard strength exercises (see Fig. 4) were computed using a nonparametric Z-criterion of signs and found significant for all tests (p<0.05).

Table 1. Standard strength practices versus Yakut Whirligig motor skills -1/ 2/ 3: average bioelectrical muscle activity (Аav, mV) rates

 

Chest expander pull

Pull-up

YMMS-3: 65cm high hole

YMMS-2: 45cm high hole

YMMS-1: 5cm high hole

Anterior bundle of deltoid muscle

0,026±0,004

0,011±0,003

0,371±0,005

0,489±0,02

0,361±0,007

Middle bundle of deltoid muscle

0,026±0,04

0,012±0,001

0,214±0,02

0,245±0,06

0,123±0,03

Posterior bundle of deltoid muscle

0,387±0,04

0,242±0,07

0,025±0,008

0,032±0,004

0,016±0,001

Latissimus dorsi

0,155±0,03

0,210±0,06

0,008±0,00

0,008±0,00

0,004±0,00

Carpal flexor

0,026±0,003

0,053±0,002

0,132±0,002

0,142±0,003

0,147±0,01

Long biceps

0,001±0,0

0,410±0,02

0,099±0,0005

0,142±0,003

0,036±0,001

Upper trapezoidal

0,052±0,007

0,116±0,003

0,033±0,001

0,047±0,0007

0,016±0,0004

Infraspinatus

0,0

0,063±0,005

0,124±0,008

0,166±0,004

0,107±0,009

Given on Figure 5 are the bioelectrical muscle activity test rates for specific phases in the three tests (two standard exercises and Yakut Whirligig motor skills -2) with the muscles working in the overcoming and yielding modes. We assumed that a reasonable correlation of the EMA profiles for two exercises may be interpreted as the close motor skill training benefits. The correlations of the pull-ups versus Yakut Whirligig motor skills -2 and pull-ups versus chest expander bioelectrical muscle activity profiles were found insignificant (p> 0.05). Therefore, the anterior and middle bundles of deltoid muscle plus the carpal flexor and infraspinatus muscles were tested mobilized higher by the Yakut Whirligig motor skills -2 than by the standard strength practices.

 

Figure 5. Average bioelectrical muscle activity (Аav, mV) test rates for Yakut Whirligig motor skills -2 (45cm high hole) and standard strength training practices

Conclusion. The tested motor-skill-claimed muscles were found differently mobilized by the test exercises; with this finding giving us the grounds to recommend them being prudently combined as complementary to productively harmonize and diversify the shoulder girdle muscles trainings in every stage of the training process. A comparative analysis of the muscular efforts claimed by the Yakut Whirligig motor skills tests versus the standard strength training exercises showed the Yakut Whirligig motor skills -2 test (with the 45cm high rest hole) being the most challenging i.e. claiming the highest muscular efforts – versus the lowest and medium efforts claiming Yakut Whirligig motor skills -3 (65cm high hole) and Yakut Whirligig motor skills -1 (5cm high hole) tests, respectively.

References

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  2. Gorodnichev R.M. Sports electroneuromyography. Velikiye Luki: VLSAPC publ.., 2005. 227 p.
  3. Kozlov I.M. Biomechanical factors of organization of sports movements; Lesgaft SAPC. St. Petersburg, 1998. 141 p.
  4. Kostyuchenko V.F. Electrical muscle activity recording method during exercise (EMG). Uchenye zapiski universiteta imeni P.F. Lesgafta. 2007. no.9 (31). pp. 52-56.
  5. Pearson R.S. Theoretical foundations of the interpretation of electromyograms. Fiziologiya cheloveka [Human Physiology. 1987. v. 13, no. 4. pp. 659-673.
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  7. Artemenko T., Gotovtsev I., Artemenko E. Analysis of bioelectric activity of muscles of a back of the athlete in special exercises and competitive actions in a power sport Mas-wrestling.  Atlantis Press, 2019.
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Corresponding author: 2336964@ua.fm

Abstract

Objective of the study was to rate benefits of the ethnic Yakut Whirligig power game versus the standard conditioning (strength) practices based on the bioelectrical muscle activity tests and analyses.

Methods and structure of the study. We sampled for the purposes of the study a 19 year-old Class I cross-country ski racer qualified for the sports excellence training stage. The athlete made 5 repetitions of 5 exercises including 2 standard physical conditioning (pull-ups and chest expander pulls) and 3 Yakut Whirligig motor skills (YWMS-1/ 2/ 3).

Results and discussion. The turnaround body movement in the Yakut Whirligig motor skills -1 (5cm high hole) execution process was most close to horizontal (Figure 1), with the execution assumed secured by extreme muscular efforts in the shoulder girdle and dorsal muscle group – versus the Yakut Whirligig motor skills -2/3 when the hole (and turnaround axis) is much higher (Figures 2, 3). We unexpectedly found, however, that the highest muscular efforts were claimed by the Yakut Whirligig motor skills -2 (with the 45cm high hole) test.

Conclusions. The tested motor-skill-claimed muscles were found differently mobilized by the test exercises; with this finding giving us the grounds to recommend them being prudently combined as complementary to productively harmonize and diversify the shoulder girdle muscles trainings in every stage of the training process. A comparative analysis of the muscular efforts claimed by the Yakut Whirligig motor skills tests versus the standard strength training exercises showed the Yakut Whirligig motor skills -2 test (with the 45cm high rest hole) being the most challenging i.e. claiming the highest muscular efforts – versus the lowest and medium efforts claiming Yakut Whirligig motor skills -3 (65cm high hole) and Yakut Whirligig motor skills -1 (5cm high hole) tests, respectively.