Visual-motor response indices versus individual performances in basketball

Dr. Hab., Professor B.E. Losin1
M.N. Larionova2
I.V. Bobrov2
1Lesgaft National State University of Physical Education, Sport and Health, St. Petersburg
2St. Petersburg Mining University, St. Petersburg

Keywords: game positions, individual performance, visual-motor response, skill levels, basketball players.

Background. Individual performance in modern basketball largely depends on the situation-specific responses in matches. The national basketball research community has reported analyses of a variety of response qualities including the choice response rates in the national junior basketball [1-5, 7].

Objective of the study was to test and analyze the individual age-, gender and skills-specific visual motor response rates versus the competitive performances.

Methods and structure of the study. We used the following methods in the study: special study reports, analysis and generalization; simple and complex visual-motor response tests; training and competitive progress analyses; and a standard mathematical statistics method. Sampled for the study were basketball players of different skill levels from the National State University of Physical Education, Sport and Health, Mining University and a few leading St. Petersburg sport schools.

Results and discussion. Tested with the highest visual-motor response rates and shortest delays in different signals applying visual-motor response tests were the male groups: see Table 1.

Table 1. Skills-, age- and skills-specific simple/ complex visual-motor response rates

Groups

 

 

Simple arm visual-motor response rate, (М±m), s

Complex arm visual-motor response rate, (М±m), s

Delay (М±m), s

8 year-old males (n=20)

0,33 ± 0,008

0,48± 0,010

0,11± 0,010

12-13 year-old females (n=20)

0,23 ± 0,005

0,31 ± 0,011

0,08±0,012

Skilled 18-24 year-old males (n=20)

0,18 ± 0,003

0,22 ± 0,010

0,04±0,007

Skilled 18-24 year-old females (n=20)

0,19 ± 0,006

0,27±0,007

0,08±0,008

The arm visual-motor response rating tests and analysis (see Table 2) showed the response rate growing with age and skill level, with the 14-15 year-old male group tested 10% higher on the visual-motor response scale than the 15-17 year-old females. The intergroup difference of the male groups was estimated at only 6%. The simple leg visual-motor response rating tests and analyses showed the leg responses being 20%-plus higher than the arm ones and also age- and skills-specific.

Table 2. Simple arm/ leg visual-motor response rates of the age/ gender/ skill groups

Groups

 

Student criterion

Simple arm visual-motor response (М±m), s

Simple leg visual-motor response (М±m), s

8 year-old males (n=20)

0,33± 0,008

0,41± 0,013

5,20*

14-15 year-old females, St. Petersburg team (n=16)

0,21 ± 0,007

0,28± 0,009

6,11*

16-17 year-old skilled females, SPB team (n=17)

0,19 ± 0,005

0,28± 0,006

11,52*

14-15 year-old skilled males, SPB team (n=17)

0,19 ± 0,006

0,26± 0,007

7,63*

16-17 year-old skilled males, SPB team (n=22)

0,18 ± 0,005

0,26± 0,006

10,20*

19-28 year-old male professionals (n=14)

0,16 ± 0,004

0,22± 0,004

10,70*

Note: SPB – Saint Petersburg; * significant, above a=0,01

Furthermore, we compared the gender- and game-role-specific (guards vs. forwards) simple/ complex visual-motor response [6, 8] and found the guards generally demonstrating faster visual-motor response rates than the power tall and heavy (3-second zone) forwards, with the gap being the widest for the simple visual-motor response rates and delays: see Table 3. It is natural that the taller and heavier players are slower in responses than their ‘shorter’ teammates albeit the difference between the power forwards and guards was found signficant only in the complex visual-motor response tests.

Table 3. Skilled gender/ game-role groups: visual-motor response test rates

Tests

18-24 year-old skilled female groups

18-24 year-old skilled male groups

Forwards, n=12

Guards, n=12

Student criterion

Forwards, n=12

Guards, n=12

Student criterion

Simple visual-motor response (М±m), s

0,19±

0,01

0,20±0,01

0,71

0,18±

0,01

0,19±

0,01

0,70

Complex visual-motor response (М±m), s

0,26± 0,01

0,28± 0,01

1,42

0,21± 0,01

0,24± 0,01

2,10*

Delay (M±m), s

0,07± 0,01

0,08 ± 0,01

0,71

0,03± 0,01

0,05±

0,01

1,42

Note: * significant, above a=0,05

We analyzed correlations for the visual-motor response test rates with the individual performance in the following gender, age and skill groups: 12–13 year-old females, 18–24 year-old skilled females, 18–24 year-old skilled males and 19-28 year-old male professionals. The intergroup analysis found significant (with the correlation ratios ranging from 0.539 to 0.750) correlations between the ball repossessions and complex visual-motor response test rates. The delay times were found correlated with the scoring passes (correlation rations estimated at 0.698 to 0.735), successes on rebounds (correlation ratios of 0.521 to 0.564) and the overall individual performance (correlation ratios of 0.532 to 0.682). We also found significant correlations between the leg visual-motor response and individual performance in every group, with the correlation ratios of 0.491 to 0.533.

Conclusion. The study found significant correlations between the arm/ leg visual-motor response test rates and individual performance rates in the age, gender and skill groups of basketball players, with the following specific conclusions:

- The 12-13 year-old female players were tested with lower/ less significant correlations of the leg/ arm visual-motor response with the individual performance rates than their senior and male peers;

- Guards were tested higher on the visual-motor response scales than the taller and heavier power (3-second zone) forwards; and

- Correlation of the complex visual-motor response and delay rates with the individual performance rates were found to grow with age and skill level.

References

  1. Al Ansari Zahid Sbhi Abdulrazak Content and methods of obese and bodily dexterity training in skilled basketball players aged 16-18. PhD diss.. abstr.. St. Petersburg: Lesgaft NRU publ., St. Petersburg, 2017. 23 p.
  2. Annenkov V.N. Means and methods of technical and tactical training of junior basketball players aged 8-11 years. PhD diss. abstr.. St. Petersburg, 1993. 24 p.
  3. Krichfalushiy M.V. Building speed of motor actions in junior basketball players aged 11-12 years. PhD diss. abstr.., 1978. 24 p.
  4. Losin B.E., Kopysova L.V. Comprehensive assessment of giftedness of 7-8 year-olds in initial basketball selection process based om biological age. Uchenye zapiski universiteta im. P.F. Lesgafta. 2005. no. 18. pp. 59-64.
  5. Losin B.E., Al Ansari Zahid Sbhi Abdulrazak, Elevich S.N. Reaction time indices in junior qualified basketball players versus game performance. Sportivnye igry: nastoyashchee i budushchee [Sports games: present and future]. Proc. 4th res.-practical conf., dedicated to the 120th anniversary of Lesgaft NRU. no. 4. St. Petersburg, 2016. pp. 26-28.
  6. Nesterovskiy D.I. Basketball: Theory and methods of training. Study guide. M.: Akademiya publ., 2004. 336 p.
  7. Poperekov V.S. Building coordination abilities of basketball players 10-11 years old in view of typological properties of their nervous system. PhD diss. abstr.. St. Petersburg, 2015. 24 p.
  8. Rudenko G.V., Dubrovskaya Yu.A., Bobrov I.V. Individual psychophysiological potential test model. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2018, no. 4, pp. 8-10.

Corresponding author: borislosin@gmail.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to test and analyze the individual age-, gender and skills-specific visual motor response rates versus the competitive performances.

Methods and structure of the study. In recent years, basketball has changed significantly - the speed of the game has increased and so basketball players have less time to make decisions. It is clear that there is a need to conduct a scientific analysis and special study, which would make it possible to assess the degree of influence of visual-motor reaction on the effectiveness of competitive activity of basketball players of various qualifications, positions, age, and gender.

The study involved more than 180 basketball players. We assessed the level of development of visual-motor reaction in their arms and legs, and determined the main game indicators during the competitive activity. Based on the game indicators, we calculated an integral indicator - the coefficient of efficiency of game actions of basketball players.

Results and conclusions. The study found significant correlations between the arm/ leg visual-motor response test rates and individual performance rates in the age, gender and skill groups of basketball players, with the following specific conclusions:

- The 12-13 year-old female players were tested with lower/ less significant correlations of the leg/ arm visual-motor response with the individual performance rates than their senior and male peers;

- Guards were tested higher on the visual-motor response scales than the taller and heavier power (3-second zone) forwards; and

- Correlation of the complex visual-motor response and delay rates with the individual performance rates were found to grow with age and skill level.