Chess sport technical and tactical training model for people with health limitations: conceptual framework

PhD, Associate Professor I.V. Mikhailova1
Dr. Hab., Associate Professor S.N. Fomina1
1Russian State Social University, Moscow

Keywords: adaptive chess sport, technical and tactical training, people with health limitations, semantic network (SN), semantic core, digitalization, notional system.

Background. Despite the fact that the modern chess sport including its adaptive version is ranked among the most popular sports disciplines in the post-Soviet area, the Russian chess sports science is still in need of a theoretical methodology and notional base and, hence, the research subject is still rather fragmented and unspecific in the national study reports. Prominent chess sports theoreticians and practi-tioners including A.A. Alekhin (1932), I.L. Maiselis (1937), M.M. Botvinnik (1939), D.I. Bronstein (1953), G.Ya. Levenfish (1957), A.N. Koblenz (1962), I.E. Boleslavsky (1965), Y. L. Averbakh (1979), B.A. Zlotnik (1985), L. Polgar (1993), A.S. Nikitin (1998), E.P. Linovitsky (2000), F. Gobet, P.J. Jensen (2005), V.A. Potkin (2011), Zyong Thanh Binem (2013) et al. – have come up with multiple funda-mental theoretical and practical study reports on the technical and tactical training related issues [4] alt-hough the latest chess sport progress trends still need to be analyzed with a special priority to the chess sport terminological basis since presently it is rather fragmented, and the existing specific practical fragments need to be logically consolidated to effectively unify the chess sport notional system [5].
Objective of the study was to to logically redesign and formalize the adaptive chess sport technical and tactical training notional system with account of the adaptive chess sport key progress trends in the context of the chess sport development on the whole based on a systemic approach and practical logical principles [3].
Methods and structure of the study. The chess sport technical and tactical training notional system includes a set of terms and definitions with reference to the sport-specific subjects. We have run for the purposes of the study a content analysis of the relevant scientific analyses of the related physical educa-tion and adaptive sports sciences, special pedagogy, educational psychology, semantics and the relevant specific study methods [9-11,13,14]. The theoretical and practical basis for the study was formed of fundamental works on the adaptive sports’ notional systems and their origins and progress trends by re-searchers from P.F. Lesgaft University and Moscow State Pedagogical University, plus practical studies of the multidimensional sports terminology systems applied in modern football, basketball and chess sport, including chess sport glossaries [1-4, 6-8, 10-12].
Results and discussion. Modern chess sport applies an integrated technical and tactical training notional base, with the technical and tactical training service embracing the intellectual training tools with ap-plication of the relevant chess-sport-specific notions to make the player fit for intellectual competitions with a special emphasis on versatile tactical skills i.e. high mastery in multiple tactical actions, tools and their application versions customizable to the game situations and external factors of influence [3, 4].
Let's dwell on the theoretical understanding of the issue and systematize the fundamental notions of the discipline [7]. Despite the fact that a holistic scientific and linguistic analysis of the modern chess sport terminological system was made by L.A. Avakova, the adaptive chess sport technical and tactical training service notions were largely left beyond this analysis. We used a variety of theoretically grounded research methods including the modern operations and actions focused ones taking into account both the global socio-economic progress trends and the fundamental chess sport theories and practices to develop a conceptual framework for our own adaptive chess sport technical and tactical training notional base with a special attention to the notional fragments harmonizing and concretizing aspects: see Figure 1 hereunder.

Figure 1. New conceptual notional system for adaptive chess sport technical and tactical training

Practical logical links Adaptive technical and tactical training Socio-axiological links

The notion of adaptive chess sport technical and tactical training forms a core meaning of this semantic chain, with the macro-notions of "sports domain" and "social domain" viewed as the notional system peaks with their multilevel interactions and connections to the core by the practical logical and socio-axiological links. The macro-notion "sports domain" embraces the selection and progress planning, competitive and external factors systems applicable for the training service optimizing purposes. The macro-notion "social domain" covers the social institutions responsible for the adaptive chess players’ socialization, social rehabilitation, social integration and social protection services.
The adaptive chess sport technical and tactical training service concept will be implemented with appli-cation of the standard and innovative digital methods, tools and institutional forms to facilitate the tacti-cal and technical trainings with the optimal psychological and pedagogical support and integrated psy-chophysical progress monitoring and test systems. It should be emphasized that the adaptive chess sport technical and tactical training service will be managed on a multilevel basis with the integrated sports mastery progress tests and analyses and mental/ physical progress tests of the chess players with health limitations.

Table 1. Competitions for the chess players with health limitations

Competitions

Adaptive chess sport classes

 

ICCD: musculoskeletal disorders

IPCA: hearing disorders

IBCA: visual impairment

2024 Summer Olympics in Paris

FIDE is expected to qualify the adaptive chess sport with the demonstrative sports disciplines

 

FIDE World Chess Olympics

 

+

 

+

 

+

 

Paralympic Games

 

Deaflympic Games

_

 

FIDE is expected to qualify adaptive chess sport for the event

_

 

 

Special Olympic Games

_

_

_

 

Special diagnoses-specific competitive events

 

+

 

+

 

+

 

In the context of the adaptive physical education theory and practice, adaptive sport is interpreted as the sports service geared to both optimize the psychophysical state of the chess players with health limita-tions and facilitate their competitive progresses in the competitions with their peers with the similar health disorders [5]. It is important, however, that the adaptive chess sport prioritizes intellectual skills and low-intensity physical progress unlike most other modern adaptive sports – e.g. basketball and foot-ball. This low physical fitness barrier allows the chess players with health limitations compete not only at the adaptive chess sport events but also at the regular World Chess Olympiads, FIDE World/ European Championships and national chess championships with their healthy peers; and many of them have made good competitive successes in matches to rank high on the FIDE event scoreboards: see Table 1.
Conclusion. Modern chess sport digitalization technologies make it possible to largely automate and objectify the training service, visualize the educational materials in virtual environments and make the technical and tactical training increasingly inclusive. The key role in the modern technical and tactical training service is played by the growing mobility of the digital chess sport trainings and data transmis-sion service, with no more need to transport people with health limitations – that means that they are no more exposed to many mental and physical stressors with the potential health risks. Presently the adap-tive chess sport technical and tactical training system widely applies the modern Internet communica-tion, chess sport educational platforms, and flexible trainer-trainee real-time interaction tools via stream-ing platforms that help save the economical and time costs of the training process.
The unique nature of the chess sport prioritizing the intellectual skills with the new digitalization meth-ods and tools makes it possible to rethink the adaptive chess sport content and design with the adaptive chess sport provided with its own notional base within the chess sport system. The adaptive chess sport notional base shall in no case comes in conflict with the existing methodological basis of the adaptive physical education and sports but rather supplements and strengthens the foundation of the sport-specific research to improve the competitive and training service and effectively optimize the mental and physical health of the players with health limitations. It is through the synergy of intellectual and physical progress securing practices applied in the modern adaptive chess sport toolkit that the evolution of scientific knowledge can be ensured to facilitate further progress of the adaptive physical education and sports science on a systemic basis.
Further studies of the adaptive chess sport notional system appear to be most promising in the socio-pedagogical resource structuring for the adaptive chess sport. However, the efforts to clarify every no-tion in the adaptive chess sport notional base on an integrated basis need to apply a multilevel arsenal of combined methods factoring in the globalization processes of special influence on the adaptive sports as a social phenomenon with the indirect effects on the life quality of the people with health limitations. 

References

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Corresponding author: chessy07@mail.ru

Abstract
Despite the fact that the modern chess sport including its adaptive version is ranked among the most popular sports disciplines in the post-Soviet area, the Russian chess sports science is still in need of a theoretical methodology and notional base and, hence, the research subject is still rather fragmented and unspecific in the national study reports.
Objective of the study was to to logically redesign and formalize the adaptive chess sport technical and tactical training notional system with account of the adaptive chess sport key progress trends in the context of the chess sport development on the whole based on a systemic approach and practical logical principles.
Methods and structure of the study. The chess sport technical and tactical training notional system includes a set of terms and definitions with reference to the sport-specific subjects. The authors made a content analysis of the relevant scientific analyses of the related physical education and adaptive sports sciences, special pedagogy, educational psychology, semantics and the relevant specific study methods. The theoretical and practical basis for the study was formed of fundamental works on the adaptive sports’ notional systems and their origins and progress trends by researchers from P.F. Lesgaft Universi-ty and Moscow State Pedagogical University, plus practical studies of the multidimensional sports ter-minology systems applied in modern football, basketball and chess sport, including chess sport glossa-ries.
Conclusion. Modern chess sport digitalization technologies make it possible to largely automate and objectify the training service, visualize the educational materials in virtual environments and make the technical and tactical training increasingly inclusive. The key role in the modern technical and tactical training service is played by the growing mobility of the digital chess sport trainings and data transmis-sion service, with no more need to transport people with health limitations – that means that they are no more exposed to many mental and physical stressors with the potential health risks. Presently the adap-tive chess sport technical and tactical training system widely applies the modern Internet communica-tion, chess sport educational platforms, and flexible trainer-trainee real-time interaction tools via stream-ing platforms that help save the economical and time costs of the training process.