Factors determining human life quality and expectancy

Dr.Hab., Associate Professor A.V. Nazarenko1
PhD, Associate Professor I.V. Astrakhantseva1
PhD, Associate Professor M.V. Korotkova1
1Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I.N. Ulyanov, Ulyanovsk

Keywords: life quality, life expectancy, factors, motor activity, healthy lifestyle, physical fitness.

Background. Progress of the global scientific and technological revolution with its rapidly falling demand for high-intensity physical labor has obviously given rise to the health deterioration trend worldwide. A human body is naturally programmed for active motor activity and the sagging job-related physical activity needs to be compensated by systemic physical health securing practices. It should be confessed, however, that the national social cultures are still largely underestimating the need for optimal physical activity for normal development and healthy life – ideally in the natural environments [2, 3]. The situation needs to be changed based on a comprehensive studies of the factors of influence on the life quality, life expectancy, living standards and motivations and needs for healthy lifestyle and self-improvement [1, 4].

Objective of the study was to identify and analyze the factors of influence on the people’s life quality and life expectancy and test benefits of a new physical fitness model.

Methods and structure of the study. We run for the purposes of the study the new physical fitness model testing experiment on a 36-46 year-old male sample of the Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University (USPU) faculty split up into Experimental (EG) and Reference (RG) Groups of 13 people each, with both groups trained 2 hours 2 times a week with the trainer’s assistance and guidance. The sample physical fitness, anthropometric characteristics and functionality was tested by pre- and post-experimental test set.

The RG was trained in compliance with the standard physical training model dominated by traditional running, jumping and throwing practices; gymnastics and acrobatics elements including side/ front rolls, floor and bench exercises; climbing; hurdle races; practices with gymnastic apparatuses; active games with team sports elements (football, basketball, volleyball); breathing exercises; a variety of static/ dynamic postural control training exercises, etc.

The EG trainings were dominated by the outdoor workouts in green zones, parks, on river banks, in forests and other natural environments, with the running, jumping, jogging, warm-ups and health conditioning running exercises; plus variable walking, long and high jumping practices combined with many other elements; and trainings on outdoor sports grounds and stadiums of a few education establishments using special sports equipment and training machines. Much attention was paid to healthy respiratory practices with relaxations, postural control and flexibility elements. Every training session assigned some time for the popular folk games and sports including gorodki (skittles-like game), pole climbing, tug-of-war, wall-to-wall funny fights; stuffed ball throw practices; basketball practices; football strikes on goal etc. [4, 5]. Prior to every training session, the EG checked and cleaned up the training ground, and made a “health path” for the jogging, jumping and hurdle race practices of varying difficulty.

 Results and discussion. The RG and RG progresses were tested by the pre- versus post-experimental tests. Thus the RG made progress in the vital capacity (VC) tests from 2.94±0.23 to 2.98±0.20 liters; versus the meaningfully better progress in the EG from 2.90±0.19 to 3.21±0.28 liters (p<0.05): see the Table 1 hereunder.

The pre- versus post-experimental HR tests found the RG making insignificant progress from 149,26±12,82 to 148,43±11,57 beats per min; versus the significantly better (р<0,05) progress in EG from 150,32±14,35 to 143,38±13,76 beats per min.

The aerobic capacity rating MOX (maximal oxygen demand) tests found that the RG made progress from 47,84±3.80 to 47,91±4,22 ml/ kg; versus the EG progress from 47,14±5.61 to 52,36±4,50 ml/ kg.

Table 1. Pre- versus post-experimental physical fitness and functionality test data of the EG and RG

Tests

Pre-exp. Х±Sx

Post-exp. Х±Sx

Increment, %

Vital capacity (VC), l

2,94±0,23

2,90±0,19

2,98±0,20

3,21±0,28

0,14

9,97*

Recumbent HR1, beats per min

78,44±6,43

79,87±7,54

78,30±6,91

74,22±12,33

0,10

7,71

Sitting HR2, beats per min

82,30±5,96

83,02±6,99

81,50±7,53

81,10±15,72

0,13

2,32

Standing HR3, beats per min

90,84±8,61

90,93±7,54

89,6±8,27

88,18±19,35

3,08

2,20

Post-jumping HR4, beats per min

149,26±12,82

150,32±14,35

148,43±11,57

145,38±13,76

0,10

3,29

1min rehab HR5, beats per min

124,73±10,63

   125,21±9,6

123,0±11,50

118,14±10,32

0,12

5,65

Systolic blood pressure (BP), mmHg

121,75±13,3

122,34±9,5

120,62±9,6

118,3±10,3

0,12

3,31

Diastolic BP, mmHg

78,17±6,4

79,46±5,9

77,90±9,5

74,32±6,8

0,14

6,47

Breathing rate (BR), cycles per min

21,13±2,0

21,40±1,7

20,23±3,5

18,71±3,3

4,26

12,58*

MOX, ml/ kg

47,84±3,80

47,14±5,6

47,99±4,22

52,36±4,5

0,32

10,0*

Right carpal dynamometry, kg

24,32±1,40

24,14±1,83

25,60±1,15

27,91±2,00

5,0

13,51*

Left carpal dynamometry, kg

23,54±2,05

23,76±2,02

24,10±1,83

26,40±1,75

2,33

10,0*

Standing long jump, cm

161,1±14,0

160,4±10,85

161,20±14,3

    164,5±10,9

0,1

2,5

Triple jump, m

3,49±0,21

3,40±0,19

3,50±0,27

3,76±0,25

0,1

10,0*

Standing high jump, cm

0,51±0,04

0,49±0,03

0,52±0,04

0,55±0,05

0,1

11,0*

Pull-ups, count

3,21±0,26

3,20±0,30

4,29±0,42

5,87±0,46

25,18*

45,49*

 

Note: RG and EG in numerator and denominator, respectively; *р<0.05

Note that the EG made a significant progress in physical fitness test rates versus the RG. For example, the RG made a significant progress in the pull-ups test from 3.21±0.26 to 4.29±0.42 times (p> 0.05); versus the EG progress from 3.20±0.30 to 5.87±0.46 times (p <0.05).

Furthermore, the new physical fitness model was designed to train the EG to:

- Make breathing practices; muscle relaxation and postural control exercises;

- Master the emotional folk games (tug of war, gorodki etc.) with versatile physical activity, particularly on weekends and in the mass physical education events; and

- Keep and analyze the physical fitness progress test data.

Furthermore, the EG was familiarized with the health benefits of habitual physical trainings; basics of and key provisions for the physical education being efficient; fundamentals of self-reliant trainings and physical fitness / functionality tests etc.; plus was briefed on the health benefits of the outdoor physical activity. A special priority was given to the most effective natural physical exercises; a range of emotional team sports, folk games and competitions; and health benefits of the natural environments and outdoor activities; plus obligatory morning hygienic gymnastics and physically active breaks in the daily regimens. Such habitual physical education and sports will be combined with comprehensive studies of the factors of influence on the life quality and life expectancy in the context of the actual living standards and lifestyles, health agendas and motivations for self-perfection.

We recommend the new physical fitness model being implemented in healthy natural environments including:

- Trekking and daily hiking trips to visit some natural attraction(s);

- "Health paths" in the communal natural environments for the self-reliant health walking practices;

- Regular communal weekend cleanup events with the environment improvement and landscaping purposes including those in the common yards, with the gardening competitions of flower bed makers; exhibitions of sculptures made of natural materials; green alleys, etc.

Conclusion. Our analysis of the available theoretical and practical research literature on the life quality and life expectancy improvement matters and materials of our own research and practical experience have shown that the popular health standards are still on the fall. Leading physical education  and ecology experts need to unite their efforts to offer a well-designed health programs (with preliminary discussions at scientific conferences, meetings, symposia) to help people change their health agendas towards more healthy lifestyles and understand the need for optimal physical activity with respectful attitudes to natural living environments – to facilitate the national physical, spiritual and ethical progress.

References

  1. Astrakhantseva I.V., Nazarenko A.V. Management of environmental education of future teachers. Nauchnoe mnenie. 2016. no.8-9. pp. 18-24.
  2. Bal'sevich V.K. Health protecting function of education. Obrazovatelnaya politika. 2007. no. 6. pp.  4-9.
  3. Lubysheva L.I., Filimonova S.N. Modern approach to the study of space. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2004. no.2. p. 2.
  4. Nazarenko L.D. Recreational basics of exercise. M.: VLADOS-PRESS, 2002. 240 p.
  5.  Nazarenko A.V. The system of increasing the efficiency of competently oriented environmental vocational and pedagogical education of future teachers. Ulyanovsk, USPU Publ., 2013. 419 p.

Corresponding author: ld_nazarenko@mail.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to identify and analyze the factors of influence on the people’s life quality and life expectancy and test benefits of a new physical fitness model.

We run for the purposes of the study the new physical fitness model testing experiment on a 36-46 year-old male sample of the Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University (USPU) faculty split up into Experimental (EG) and Reference (RG) Groups of 13 people each, with both groups trained 2 hours 2 times a week with the trainer’s assistance and guidance. The sample physical fitness, anthropometric characteristics and functionality was tested by pre- and post-experimental test set.

Results of the study. The study made it possible to determine the nature of changes in the indicators under the influence of targeted physical loads, performed mainly in the open air, in the park, on playgrounds and stadiums: running exercises, various types of walking; standing jumps, long jumps and high jumps combined with other elements; exercises with the use of sports equipment and simulators - showed a significant increase in the level of physical fitness in the EG. Assimilation of various respiratory movements; relaxation exercises, dynamic and static postures, flexibility used in the EG, contributed to the improvement of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems functionality.

Conclusion. Analyzing the reasons that determine the quality and expectancy of human life, the authors give pride of place to regular motor activity and nature of interactions between people and the environment.