Effectiveness of fitness technologies in academic physical education system

Associate Professor J. Poliskiene1
Associate Professor Z.Kh. Nizametdinova1
K. Polishkite2
1Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow
2Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow

Keywords: female students, physical education, fitness technology, physical qualities, physical fitness, physically retarded group, physically harmonic group, physically leading group.

Background. Modern academic physical education service for female student population is increasingly versatile in its health improvement, physical activation and physical fitness methods and tools [2, 3]. It should be noted that students on the whole and girls in particular are more often than not driven by body shaping agenda in their motivations for physical education trainings [4]. Traditional academic physical education curricula are dominated by the most popular and effective sports disciplines including running, walking, jumping and jogging plus gymnastics elements with/ without apparatuses, equipment and training machines, with multiple objects widely used for diversity [1, 5]. In this context, of special importance and benefits may be the modern health and body shaping fitness technologies.
Objective of the study was to lay a theoretical basis for and experimentally test benefits of a new fitness model complementary to the traditional academic physical education service curriculum.
Methods and structure of the study. The study with a model testing experiment was run in 2017–2019 at Financial University and Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE). We sampled for the study the 17-23 year old female students (n=44) split up into Experimental and Reference Groups (EG, RG) of 22 people each tested equally physically fit by the pre-experimental tests. The new fitness model was run on an off-class basis complementary to the traditional academic physical education service and included weightlifting/ strength/ flexibility exercises with dumbbells, gymnastic sticks, expanders, steps, fitballs and other fitness equipment. The group progress and benefits of the new fitness model were tested by a set of standard physical fitness tests.
Results and discussion. Having analyzed the physical progress profiles of the physically retarded subgroups in both groups, we found the RG and EG being virtually equal in the pre-experimental tests, whilst the EG physically retarded subgroup making significant (p <0.05) progress in the post-experimental tests. Thus the physically retarded RG and physically retarded EG were tested with 70m and 105m progresses in the 6-min run test; and 0.2 point and 2.7 point progresses in the pull-ups test, respectively (p <0.05).
The physically harmonious subgroups were significantly ahead of their physically retarded peers in every test. Thus the RG physically harmonious and EG physically harmonious were tested with 60m and 190m progresses in the endurance test; and 1cm and 5cm progresses in the front lean test, respectively (p <0.05).
And the physically leading subgroups were meaningfully ahead of their physically retarded / physically harmonious peers in every test. Thus the physically leading EG was tested with 175m progress in the six-minute run test (<0.05) and 1.6s progress in the shuttle sprint test (p <0.05).
The physical fitness tests with application of a point system showed specific benefits of the special fitness practices in the new model. Our analysis of the 6-min run group test data showed the physically retarded subgroups making progresses of 4 and 8 points in the RG and EG, respectively (see Table hereunder); physically harmonious subgroups making progresses of 17 and 20 points (‘excellent’ score) in the RG and EG, respectively; with the total post-experimental progresses of 3 and 6 points, respectively.

Table 1. Post- versus post-experimental test data of the EG and RG physical fitness subgroups, points

RG

Subgroup

Tests

6-min run, m

Standing long jump, cm

Pull-ups, count

Front lean, cm

4x9m shuttle sprint, s

PR

Pre-exp

1

3

2

6

2

Post-exp

4

3

2

5

1

PH

Pre-exp

14

11

6

7

8

Post-exp

17

10

6

8

12

PL

Pre-exp

1

2

2

1

1

Post-exp

1

2

2

4

1

EG

PR

Pre-exp

1

4

2

6

2

Post-exp

8

7

6

9

7

PH

Pre-exp

14

11

6

7

8

Post-exp

20

14

9

13

17

PL

Pre-exp

1

2

2

1

1

Post-exp

8

7

5

11

6

Note: PR, PH, PL mean physically retarded, physically harmonious and physically leading subgroups, respectively

The physically harmonious RG subgroup showed the highest score of 11 points (‘good’ level) in the post-experimental standing long jump, although the actual progress made up only 1 point. As for the physically retarded / physically leading EG subgroups, they showed more even progresses within the ‘good’ physical fitness range.
Leading in the pull-ups test was the physically harmonious RG subgroup that made a 6-point progress falling within the ‘satisfactory’ physical fitness range, whilst the other RG subgroups made unsatisfactory progresses in the test. Leading in this test was the physically harmonious EG subgroup with 9 points.
Leading in the front lean test were the physically retarded EG and physically leading EG subgroups with 13 and 11 points falling within the ‘good’ physical fitness range, respectively.
Conclusion. The new fitness model complementary to the traditional academic physical education service curricula applied on an off-class basis was tested beneficial as verified by the EG versus RG physical progress test data. The experimental data and analyses give reasons to recommend the new fitness model as complementary to the standard academic physical education curricula.

References

  1. Antipova E.M. Technology of fitness classes with 18-20 year old females. Fizicheskaya kultura: vospitanie, obrazovanie, trenirovka. 2016. no. 4. P. 13.
  2. Guba V.P. Priority use of circuit training method at physical education classes in universities of humanities. Izvestiya Tulskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Fizicheskaya kultura. Sport. 2017. no. 1. pp. 14-23.
  3. Zabelina L.N. Differentiated methodology for development of physical qualities of technical university students based on their individual characteristics. PhD diss. abstr.. Tula, 2011. 23 p.
  4. Koroleva L.V. Educational basis of fitness aerobics and shaping classes with 35-45 year old females. PhD diss.. abstr. . M., 2004. 17 p.
  5. Ponomarev V.V. Physical development and functional fitness of female students practicing fitness. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2015.  no. 9. pp.  27-28.

Corresponding author: jolita66@yandex.ru

Abstract
Objective of the study was to lay a theoretical basis for and experimentally test benefits of a new fitness model complementary to the traditional academic physical education service curriculum.
Methods and structure of the study. The study with a model testing experiment was run in 2017–2019 at Financial University and Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE). We sampled for the study the 17-23 year old female students (n=44) split up into Experimental and Reference Groups (EG, RG) of 22 people each tested equally physically fit by the pre-experimental tests. The new fitness model was run on an off-class basis complementary to the traditional academic physical education service and included weightlifting/ strength/ flexibility exercises with dumbbells, gymnastic sticks, expanders, steps, fitballs and other fitness equipment. The group progress and benefits of the new fitness model were tested by a set of standard physical fitness tests.
Results and conclusions. The new fitness model complementary to the traditional academic physical education service curricula applied on an off-class basis was tested beneficial as verified by the EG versus RG physical progress test data. The experimental data and analyses give reasons to recommend the new fitness model as complementary to the standard academic physical education