Morphofunctional features of female students trained according to different physical education programs

PhD, Associate Professor M.S. Golovin1
E.A. Shigaeva1
Associate Professor T.I. Kolosova1
Dr. Biol., Professor R.I. Aizman1
1Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk

Keywords: physical education, fitness, step aerobics, functional training, female students.

Background. Today, different types of fitness culture are gaining popularity at the higher education level [2]. The popular appeal of these health-improving systems is due to a variety of fitness activities, which gives students a free choice of acceptable forms of physical training according to their individual characteristics and needs [3].

Objective of the study was to identify indicators of physical health of female students of Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University engaged in various fitness programs compared to traditional physical education classes.

Methods and structure of the study. The study involved 60 female students aged from 18 to 22 years, attending the fitness center of Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University "Green Fitness" and traditional physical education classes. The girls were divided into three study groups by their choice of health and fitness activities type: 1) main health group (n=15); 2) step aerobics (n=30); 3) functional training (n=15). During the academic year, the main health group female students were engaged in the main physical education program at the university (Table 1).

The step aerobics group was involved in prolonged trainings within the target zone of their pulse using long-duration exercises for different muscle groups. The load intensity was dosed by changing the height of the platform, lever principle, amplitude of movements, and by increasing the musical tempo [6].

The functional trainings were based on the activation of a large number of muscle groups and fibers of various types using complex static and dynamic loads, and included Cross Fit, TRX functional loops using various muscle stabilizers [4].

We determined the subjects’ body mass, body length, wrist and deadlift dynamometry test rates, vital capacity, and total fat mass (bioimpedance analysis) [8].

Table 1. Specific characteristics of the female students’ physical education and fitness activities

Training activity characteristics

Main health group

Step aerobics

Functional training

Average duration of the training session, min

90

60

60

Number of training sessions per week

2

3

3

Duration of the main part of the training session, min

60

40

40

Target heart range, bpm

120-160

120-160

120-160

 
We measured the testees’ heart rate and blood pressure at rest, their physical working capacity in the step-ergometric test (PWC170), chrono-inotropic reserve, and heart rate recovery rate after physical loads [1, 5].

The data obtained were analyzed by means of the conventional methods of mathematical statistics using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney non-parametric criterion and were considered statistically significant at p≤0.05. The study was run twice: in the autumn of 2016 and in the spring of 2017. All subjects gave their voluntary informed consent for participation in the study as required by the relevant provisions of the Helsinki Declaration (1964).

Results and discussion. At the beginning of the study, the groups did not differ in terms of the main anthropometric indicators (Table 2). However, a follow-up study conducted 8 months after revealed an upward trend in the body mass indices among the girls of the main health group, their decrease in the step aerobics group, and no change in the functional training one. The increased body mass rates in the main health group were due to the increased total fat, whereas in the groups of step aerobics and functional training, there was a downward trend in the fat component (see Table 2). The girls’ total fat mass indices were within the sex and age norms. Therefore, it can be concluded that step aerobics and functional training contribute to the reduction of body fat, whereas the training loads in the main health group were probably not sufficient enough.

In the groups of step aerobics and functional training, there was a significant increase in the birth-death ratio indices, while in the main health group, these indices deceased, apparently due to the increased body mass of the female students and no increase in the vital capacity rates. In all groups, there were no changes in the wrist and deadlift dynamometry test rates, which could be due to the predominant development of overall endurance.

Table 2. Changes in the morphofunctional status of the female students of Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University

Indicators

Main health group

Step aerobics

Functional training

2016

2017

2016

2017

2016

2017

Body length, cm

166.7±2.4

166.8±2.2

164.6±1.5

164.7±1.5

164.8±1.1

164.9±1.1

Body mass, kg

56.7±2.3

59.8±2.2

56.5±2.4

55.3±2 #

54.5±2

54.2±1.8 #

Total fat, %

27.8±1.9

29.4±1.7

28.7±1.7

27.3±1.5

27.0±1.3

26.2±1.2#

Birth-death ratio, ml/kg

57.0±1.3

54.8±2.7

53.8±1.6

58.4±2.3*

56.8±1.7

60.4±1.7*#

Wrist dynamometry, kg/kg

0.53±0.03

0.54±0.01

0.50±0.02

0.52±0.02

0.56±0.02

0.55±0.02

Deadlift dynamometry, kg/kg

1.00±0.1

0.99±0.08

0.94±0.04

0.93±0.06

1.12±0.05

1.11±0.05

Resting heart rate, bpm

80.7±2.0

76.7±2.3

78.8±2.5

72.8±2.1*

81.1±1.8

75.4±2.2*

Chrono-inotropic reserve at rest

94.8±4.4

90.3±5.6

91.0±3.5

82.6±3.5*#

93.3±2.5

86.6±3.3*

Heart rate under exercise, bpm

173.3±2.1

176.1±3.0

172.0±4.2

167.0±3.9#

174.7±2.5

168.0±3.0*#

Chrono-inotropic reserve during exercise

271±8

279±11

253±12

244±10#

267±9

242±8*#

Recovery rate, c.u.

8.6±0.4

9.1±0.3

9.4±0.5

9.9±0.4#

8.8±0.4

9.8±0.3*#

PWC 170, kgm/min*kg

10.6±0.2

10.2±0.4

11.2±0.7

11.5±0.6#

10.8±0.4

11.6±0.5#

Note. Significance of intra-group differences in dynamics: * р<0.05; versus main health group: #  р<0.05.

With the same initial heart rate values, the subjects’ heart rate decreased in all groups by the end of the academic year, indicating increased cardiovascular system functionality in all subjects, with a more pronounced change in the step aerobics and functional training groups. A statistically significant decrease in the chrono-inotropic reserve was found in the step aerobics and functional training groups, which testified to a significant increase in the cardiac efficiency by the end of the academic year and is deemed a favorable integral indicator of adaptation. The main health group subjects demonstrated a downward trend only. Consequently, the changes described indicated a favorable impact of physical education on the functional status of the female students in all groups, but more so in the step aerobics and functional training groups.

A good functional state is known to reflect high physiological reserves of the body and the rationality of their use in muscular activity [7]. The reserve capabilities of the cardiorespiratory system were determined in the standard step-ergometric test. There were no statistically significant differences between the females’ heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure values during the initial testing, which indicated that their reserve capacities were the same at the beginning of the study. By the end of the academic year, an upward trend in the heart rate indices was observed in the main health group, and no blood pressure shifts were detected, indicating lack of significant changes in the functional reserves. At the same time, both fitness groups were found to have an increase in the cardiovascular system functionality, as evidenced by a pronounced decrease in the chrono-inotropic reserve, but a more pronounced improvement in the functional training group. Thus, the functional state of the cardiorespiratory system of the girls from the fitness groups improved, which was seen in the economical reaction to the standard physical load.

Among the most important indicators of physical fitness is the aerobic fitness level. In the main health group, PWC170 did not change throughout the academic year, while in the fitness groups an upward trend was observed in the aerobic performance rates in the standard step-ergometric test.

The heart rate recovery rate after physical loads in the main health group and step aerobics group tended to increase, more significantly - in the functional training group, thus reflecting the improvement of the vegetative regulation mechanisms by the end of the academic year.

The identified dynamics of the cardiorespiratory system functionality indicates the rationality and efficiency of the training mode in the fitness groups as opposed to the training sessions in the main health group. In addition, the inclusion of fitness programs in the educational process has encouraged students to engage in such activities and has contributed to the systematic nature of the activities, which is a key factor in improving the physical fitness level.

Conclusions:

  • Step aerobics and functional training help reduce body weight and total fat, improve external respiration, increase the efficiency of the cardiovascular system at rest and when performing physical loads, increase PWC170 and improve heart rate recovery.
  • The standard physical education program was found to lead to insignificant improvements in physical health indicators, while most parameters of physical development and functional state did not change by the end of the academic year.
  • Step aerobics practices and functional training can be recommended for the physical education program as the most important components to develop overall endurance and improve the cardiorespiratory system functionality as opposed to the classes under the traditional physical education program and are also recommended as additional classes to choose from.

References

  1. Golovin M.S., Balioz N.V., Krivoshchekov S.G., Aizman R.I. Integration of functional, psycho-physiological and biochemical processes in athletes' body after audiovisual stimulation. Human Physiology. 2018. v. 44. no. 1. pp. 64-71.
  2. Lubysheva L.I., Peshkova N.V. Analysis of development of student sports: state and prospects. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2014. no. 1.pp. 39-41.
  3. Panfilov O.P., Borisova V.V., Shestakova T.A. et al. Methodological basis of classification of integrated nonparametric physical exercises (in terms of fitness technologies). Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2013. no. 8. pp. 62-67.
  4. Saitov R.M., Lisitskaya T.S. The Meaning of «Functional Training». Fizicheskaya kultura: vospitanie, obrazovanie, trenirovka. 2013. no. 6. pp. 73-75.
  5. Subotyalov M.A., Nikulina O.S. Morphofunctional and psychophysiological indicators of female athletes with different sport skill levels. Meditsina i obrazovanie v Sibiri. 2014. no, 3. P. 22.
  6. Filippova Yu.S., Golovin M.S. Some data from biomedical selection of candidates for the Novosibirsk Region national team for sports aerobics. International Journal of Experimental Education.  2014. no. 11-1. pp. 9-11.

Corresponding author: golovin593@mail.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to identify indicators of physical health of female students of Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University engaged in various fitness programs compared to traditional physical education classes.

Methods and structure of the study. The study involved 60 female students aged from 18 to 22 years, attending the fitness center of Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University "Green Fitness" and traditional physical education classes. The girls independently chose the type of health and fitness activities, which enabled to form three study groups: 1) main health group (n=15); 2) step aerobics (n=30); 3) functional training (n=15). During the academic year, the main health group female students were engaged in the main physical education program at the university. The step aerobics group was involved in prolonged trainings within the target zone of their pulse using long-duration exercises for different muscle groups. The load intensity was dosed by changing the height of the platform, the principle of the lever, the amplitude of movements, and by increasing the musical tempo. The functional trainings were based on the activation of a large number of muscle groups and fibers of various types using complex static and dynamic loads, and included Cross Fit, TRX functional loops using various muscle stabilizers.

Results and conclusions. Step aerobics and functional training help reduce body weight and total fat, improve external respiration, increase the efficiency of the cardiovascular system at rest and when performing physical loads, increase PWC170 and improve heart rate recovery. The standard physical education program was found to lead to insignificant improvements in physical health indicators, while most parameters of physical development and functional state did not change by the end of the academic year.