Sport-specific locomotor system functionality tests and analyses

PhD S.V. Nopin1
Dr. Biol., Professor Yг.V. Koryagin1
PhD G.N. Ter-Akopov1
1North-Caucasian Federal Research and Clinical Center of the Federal Biomedical Agency, Yessentuki

Keywords: biomechanics, stress testing, video analysis, tensodymanometry, athletes,  locomotor system functionality.

Background. Efficient and harmonic locomotor system functionality is known to form a basis for physical progress, competitive effectiveness and fatigue/ burnout prevention initiatives.

Objective of the study was to offer a sport-specific locomotor system functionality test procedure (‘protocol’).

Methods and structure of the study. We sampled for the study the 18-30 year old Class I to WCMS (World Class Master of Sport) qualified athletes (n=62) of the following sport disciplines: foil fencing (n=7, males), volleyball (n=6, males), martial arts (n=10, males), athletics (n=17, both genders), crossfit (n=10, males), and football (n=12, males). The study was run at the North-Caucasian Federal Research and Clinical Center of the Federal Biomedical Agency (Russia, Kislovodsk) on the Maloye Sadlo Mountain at 1240m altitude and timed to the training cycle at Yug Sport base.

The locomotor system functionality test standard was designed and tested using the BTS Motion System (made by BTS Bioengineering, Italy) equipped with three SMART-DX  infrared cameras and two video-cameras, wireless BTS FREEEMG 1000 dynamic electromiographic test unit, and two 60x40cm floor tensodymanometric platforms.

The sport-specific locomotor system functionality was tested by a Bosco [2] repetitive jump test procedure adapted for BTS SMART Motion System. The test requires the subject making as many and as high standing bipodalic jumps as possible for 60s, with the knee angle kept at 90°, with four 15-second tests in total (Tests 1-4). The aerial phase time of every jump was fixed by the SMART-D high-resolution digital optoelectronic system sensors, followed by the test data processing by Statistica 13.0 software, with the data arrays matched by the nonparametric Wilcoxon test.

Results and discussion. The locomotor system functionality Bosco repetitive jump test yielded the following test data: jump height; aerial phase time; average jump power to body mass index; average support contact time; maximal push-off strength, N; and for every 15-second Test 1-4: average specific jump power, W/ kg; average jump height, m; average standard deviation of jump height, m; maximum jump height, m; and the total jumps per test. Given on Figure hereunder is a sample test window.

Figure 1. Sample test window with the real-time test data

The locomotor system functionality test data for gender groups showed the following. Male versus female groups were tested with statistically significantly higher maximal push-off strength of 2047.0±127.7 N versus 1436.9±67.5 N, respectively (p <0.05) and third-test maximum jump height of 0.20±0.02 m versus 0.15±0.02 m, respectively (p <0.05). The male groups were tested with the lower exposure to fatigue: 1.6±0.1 versus 2.2±0.3, respectively; and higher total jumps per test: 45.6±3.8 versus 52.3±3.8. Given in Table hereunder are the comparative sport-specific test data, with the sports classified provisionally into cyclic (athletics) and situational (fencing, volleyball, martial arts, football and crossfit).

Table 1. Sport-specific locomotor system functionality test data yielded by the Bosco repetitive jump tests

Test rate

Foil fencing

Volleyball

 

Martial arts

 

Athletics

 

Crossfit

 

Football

Fatigue rate

1,5±0,2

FN/V <0,05

2,2±0,2

1,7±0,2

1,6±0,1

2,1±0,2

1,7±0,1

F/V

<0,05

Maximal push-off strength, N

2121,6±

174,4

2086,6±

184,4

2256,8±

180,2

2047,0±

127,7

1893,0±

143,5

1828,4±

127,4

Test 1: specific power, W/ kg

14,7±1,1

F/V/MA/ C<0,05

18,0±1,0

17,5±1,1

15,5±0,7

A/C<0,05

18,3±1,1

20,1±0,8

F/FN/ A <0,01

Test 1: maximum jump height, m

0,24±0,03 F/MA<0,05

0,33±0,04

0,32±0,03

0,26±0,02

0,32±0,02

0,34±0,02

F/FN/A

<0,01

Test 1: total jumps

12,4±1,1

12,3±0,8

10,6±0,5

11,9±0,8

11,7±0,4

12,5±0,8

F/MA

<0,05

Test 2: specific power, W/ kg

14,7±2,0

F/MA<0,05

15,9±1,5

16,8±1,3

MA/A<0,05

13,9±0,6

A/C<0,05

16,7±1,2

19,2±1,0

F/A<0,05

Test 2: maximum jump height, m

0,22±0,03

F/MA <0,05

0,45±0,21

0,30±0,02

MA/A

<0,05

0,23±0,02

0,27±0,02

0,3±0,01

F/FN/A

<0,05

Test 2: total jumps

13,6±1,4

 

12,8±0,9

10,6±0,6

MA/C

<0,05

11,5±0,9

12,2±0,4

13,3±0,9

F/ MA

<0,05

Test 3: specific power, W/ kg

14,1±2,5

11,5±0,9

13,8±1,0

12,5±0,8

14,1±1,2

16,2±1,0

F/V/A

<0,05

Test 3: maximum jump height, m

0,20±0,03

0,20±0,01

0,25±0,02

0,20±0,02

0,23±0,02

0,26±0,01

F/FN/ V/ A

<0,05

Test 3: total jumps

14,1±1,7

 

12,0±1,1

10,6±0,7

11,4±1,1

11,7±0,5

13,1±1,1

Test 4: specific power, W/ kg

13,4±2,8

9,7±0,7

12,4±1,3

 

11,0±1,0

10,9±0,9

13,9±1,2

F/V

<0,05

Test 4: maximum jump height, m

0,17±0,03

0,16±0,02

0,24±0,03

A/C

<0,05

0,15±0,02

0,17±0,02

0,24±0,02

F/V/A/C

<0,05

Test 4: total jumps

14,3±1,8

F/V/MA

<0,05

10,3±0,8

9,6±0,8

 

10,8±1,2

10,7±0,5

11,9±1,2

The fencers and track-and-field athletes were tested with the highest speed-strength endurance (lower fatigue indices) followed by the football players and martial artists; whilst the crossfitters and volleyball players were tested lowest on the endurance scale. The maximal push-off strength test rates showed no statistically significant differences; although the martial artists and fencers were tested with the relatively high push-off strengths than the football players and crossfitters.

Furthermore, footballers were tested with the higher specific power and maximum jump height in Tests 1-3, whilst the martial artists were ranked medium on the both scales. The total jumps were different in Tests 1-4, with the martial artists ranked lowest on this scale, and all the other athletes showing no significant differences in Tests 1-2. The fencers were tested highest in Tests 3-4 in the total jumps.

Conclusion. The repeated locomotor system functionality jump test procedure using the BTS Motion System yields the following test rates: fatigue index, maximal push-off strength, maximal jump power, height and total jumps in every of the 15-second Tests 1-4; and EMG bioelectric test rates. The locomotor system functionality jump test procedure may be used for stress tests in the strength- and speed-strength-intensive sport disciplines.

The locomotor system functionality Bosco jump test procedure was found gender-specific for athletics in the following aspects: male athletes were tested higher on the higher maximal push-off strength and maximum jump height in Tests 3, lower fatigue indices, higher jump heights and higher frequencies. Tested highest on the speed-strength endurance scale were fencers and track and field athletes, followed by football players and martial artists, whilst the crossfit athletes and volleyball players were tested lowest on this scale.

The study was completed under State Order № 129.014.19.14 for the North-Caucasian Federal Research and Clinical Center of the Federal Biomedical  Agency for the “LMSF and mid-altitude biomechanic, tensometric and electromyographic test systems for sport applications research project” (Movement-19 Code)

References

  1. Ambrósio J. A. C., Abrantes J. M. C. S. Developments in biomechanics of human motion for health and sportsю A Portrait of State-of-the-Art Research at the Technical University of Lisbon. Springer, Dordrecht, 2007. pp. 531-553.
  2. Bosco C., Luhtanen P., Komi P.V. A simple method for measurement of mechanical power in jumping. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1983. v. 50. No. 2. pp. 273-282.

Corresponding author:

Abstract

Objective of the study was to offer a sport-specific locomotor system functionality test procedure (‘protocol’).

Methods and structure of the study. The locomotor system functionality test standard was designed and tested using the BTS Motion System (made by BTS Bioengineering, Italy) equipped with three SMART-DX  infrared cameras and two video-cameras, wireless BTS FREEEMG 1000 dynamic electromiographic test unit, and two 60x40cm floor tensodymanometric platforms.

Results and conclusions. The repeated locomotor system functionality jump test procedure using the BTS Motion System yields the following test rates: fatigue index, maximal push-off strength, maximal jump power, height and total jumps in every of the 15-second Tests 1-4; and EMG bioelectric test rates. The locomotor system functionality jump test procedure may be used for stress tests in the strength- and speed-strength-intensive sport disciplines.

The locomotor system functionality Bosco jump test procedure was found gender-specific for athletics in the following aspects: male athletes were tested higher on the higher maximal push-off strength and maximum jump height in Tests 3, lower fatigue indices, higher jump heights and higher frequencies. Tested highest on the speed-strength endurance scale were fencers and track and field athletes, followed by football players and martial artists, whilst the crossfit athletes and volleyball players were tested lowest on this scale.