Functionality of external respiration system of young people residing in different regions of Russia

Dr.Biol., Associate Professor V.N. Pushkina1, 2
PhD I.N. Gernet1
PhD N.V. Olyashev2, 3
PhD, Associate Professor E.A. Lubyshev1, 2
1Moscow City Pedagogical University, Moscow
2Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow
3Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow

 

Keywords: students, circumpolar region, temperate climate zone, respiratory system.

 

Background. Due to the intensification of life, the urban population is particularly susceptible to emotional stress, which contributes to the activation of the sympathoadrenal system, which, in turn, affects all functional systems of the body [1]. Nevertheless, dynamic stability is a "physiological norm" that the body is able to maintain under any load, including its adaptation to unstable environmental conditions imposing different requirements on the adaptive activity of the body [5, 7]. The analysis of the dynamics of changes in the external respiration function is extremely informative for assessing the bodily functional potential [2, 8]. Considering that today, when organizing the physical education process, much attention is being paid to building an individual educational trajectory for students to obtain maximum efficiency from their physical training, it is necessary to constantly correct the developed programs based on new scientific data [9, 10].

Objective of the study was to assess the functional state of young people living in various regions of Russia based on an analysis of their external respiration system functionality.

Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were 30 apparently healthy youngsters aged 19.26±0.18 years (Arkhangelsk) and 35 ones aged 18.07±0.72 years (Moscow). We studied the subjects’ external respiration function using an automatic SPIRO C-100 spirometer. The external respiration function was rated based on the following indicators: respiratory rate at rest, RR (breaths/min); tidal volume - TV (l); inspiratory reserve volume - RVinsp (l); expiratory reserve volume - RVexp (l); vital capacity - VC (l); inspiratory capacity - InspC (l); maximum breathing capacity - MBC (l/min); maximum respiratory rate - RRMBC (breaths/min); maximum tidal volume - TVMBC (l).

Results and discussion. The analysis of the overall functional state of the respiratory system in terms of vital capacity showed lower values among the young males living in the temperate climate zone (Moscow). The vital capacity rates in this group were lower by 17% (p<0.01) (Fig. 1). However, the fractional analysis of vital capacity of the youngsters indicated that the actual tidal volume rates in the young males living in temperate climates were higher than in those residing in the circumpolar region (p<0.001). Such results probably indicate an increase in the number of functioning alveolis, which is necessary for the successful adaptation of the body in the central region conditions while adapting to the cold period (the study was carried out in November) when the mechanism of hyperventilation [3, 6] is more actively involved.

 

Fig. 1. Lung volume and vital capacity rates in youngsters (indicators obtained in young males living in the circumpolar region of Russia were set to 100%)

 

Given the fact that the breathing capacity rates are highly variable and depend on many values, the ratio of tidal volume to vital capacity was determined. In the young males living in the temperate climate zone, these rates amounted to 25%, while in the northerners - 11%. Consequently, 89% of vital capacity of the northerners in the state of relative rest (with quiet breathing) was in reserve. For the residents of the central region, this indicator was lower by 14%, thus indicating a higher energy demand of the body in the state of relative rest [4].

Further analysis of the volumetric parameters revealed that the students living in the temperate climate zone had higher RVexp rates relative to those obtained in the young males living in the circumpolar region (p<0.05). They also had higher rates of RVinsp and RVexp relative to vital capacity (43% and 30%, respectively), while in the northerners they decreased by 9% and 4%, which confirms the above-mentioned assumption of higher energy consumption of the body at rest.

The load testing in the form of a stress test of the maximally increased respiration showed that the residents of the central region of Russia had a lower level of adaptation of the respiratory system. This group of young people had higher RRMBC rates (p<0.05) with an upward trend in the TVMBC rates with the relatively stable maximum breathing capacity rates as opposed to the Northern boys (Fig. 2).

 

Fig. 2. Lung ventilation rates in youngsters in terms of maximally increased respiration (indicators obtained in the young males living in the circumpolar region of Russia were set to 100%)

 

The increased maximum breathing capacity in the residents of the temperate climate zone during the stress test was more due to the increase of RRMBC (p<0.05) against a less significant growth of TVMBC, which indicated a more pronounced functional tension of the body, as the increase of the maximum breathing capacity due to the increase of RRMBC requires a high energy consumption of the body. However, the maximum breathing capacity in the students from both groups did not differ statistically significantly, thus indicating that their adaptation reserves were preserved, regardless of the region of residence. The relationship of the actual maximum breathing capacity to the proper maximum breathing capacity also points to this fact. This value in the residents of the temperate climate zone amounted to 126%, while in the population of the northern region it equaled 128%, with an average of 87% (61 to 119% variance).

Conclusions. It was shown that the young people living in Moscow were characterized by an increase in the energy demand of the body in a state of relative muscular rest, higher rates of total inspiratory volume, reserve expiratory volume and tidal volume. At the same time, the residents of the northern region were found to have significant reserve capacities of the respiratory system to improve pulmonary ventilation. In general, the young people from both groups had a high ultimate level of the external respiration system functioning.

Based on the data obtained, at the initial stage of adaptation to cold weather (November), university students of the central region of Russia are recommended to reduce the level of physical activity, which requires increased energy consumption, as well as include in the educational process less energy-intensive health and fitness activities, such as Pilates, yoga, stretching, Nordic walking.

 

References

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  2. Varentsova I.A., Pushkina V.N., Kochnev A.V., Anoshina T.V. Health status of  special health group students based on analysis of external respiration system indices. 2018. no.10. pp. 42-44.

  3. Gribanov A.V., Gudkov A.B., Popova O.N., Kraynova I.N. Blood circulation and breathing in schoolchildren in circumpolar conditions. Arkhangelsk: SAFU publ., 2016. 270 p.

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  7. Shishkin G.S., Ustyuzhaninova N.V., Gultyaeva V.V. Changes in functional organization of external respiration system in inhabitants of western Siberia in winter season. Human physiology. 2014. v. 40.  no. 1. pp. 106-112.

  8. Fitzgerald R.S. Oxygen and carotid body chemo transduction: the cholinergetic hypothesis – a brief history and new evaluation. Respirat. Physiol. 2000. V.120. P. 89.

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Corresponding author: taiss43@yandex.ru

 

Abstract

Objective of the study was to assess the functional state of young people living in various regions of Russia, based on an analysis of their external respiration system functionality.

Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were 30 apparently healthy youngsters aged 19.26±0.18 years (Arkhangelsk) and 35 ones aged 18.07±0.72 years (Moscow). We studied the subjects’ external respiration function using an automatic SPIRO C-100 spirometer.

Results and conclusions. It was shown that the young people living in Moscow were characterized by an increase in the energy demand of the body in a state of relative muscular rest, higher rates of total inspiratory volume, reserve expiratory volume and tidal volume. At the same time, the residents of the northern region were found to have significant reserve capacities of the respiratory system to improve pulmonary ventilation. In general, the young people from both groups had a high ultimate level of the external respiration system functioning.

Based on the data obtained, at the initial stage of adaptation to cold weather (November), university students of the central region of Russia are recommended to reduce the level of physical activity, which requires increased energy consumption, as well as include in the educational process less energy-intensive health and fitness activities, such as Pilates, yoga, stretching, Nordic walking.