Physiological substantiation and practical implementation of methods of development of strength-building component of endurance training for wrestlers

PhD N.Yu. Tarabrina1
PhD Yu.V. Kraev1
PhD, Associate Professor A.I. Tikhonov1
1Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow

 

Keywords: strength, special endurance, performance, wrestlers.

Background. At the present stage of development of freestyle wrestling, it is clear that occupational attainment is increasing, which in turn increases the visual appeal of competitive fights. One of the most promising ways to popularize this sport is to increase the level of attractiveness of competitions by increasing the number of complex elements, hacks, roll-up actions, throws with high amplitude, which are the leading structural elements of the technical-tactical actions in wrestling [1].

Sports specialists, coaches, and athletes are constantly in search of new and more effective sports equipment, simulators, sports gear [4, 5]. Ideally, sports equipment should be versatile, functional, efficient, and durable. Bulgarian Bag - an easy-to-use sports piece which is used during strength, pliometric, and aerobic exercises to develop strength qualities, increasing explosive force, strengthening joints and ligaments, as well as the cardiovascular system conforms to all these criteria [6].

As a piece of exercise equipment, the Bulgarian Bag is versatile: it can perform the functions of a weight or an independent strength training equipment or gymnastic apparatus. It is a crescent-shaped bag, usually filled with sand. It is believed that exercises with the Bulgarian Bag are more physiological than exercises with other weights as the structure of sand is unstable so trainings with the Bulgarian Bag involve more muscle and connective groups, require greater effort and more energy, which is an advantage over conventional sports equipment of the same weight [6]. Another advantage of this implement is that the trainer can effectively train a team of up to 30 wrestlers and more, thus increasing the motor density of training and its efficiency. In other words, athletes make attempts with the stationary training equipment in turn, while in case with the Bulgarian Bag the entire group can be trained simultaneously, which enables the trainer to make individual adjustments to the performance technique of individual wrestlers to achieve the desired results [6].

Objective of the study was to determine the effects of a complex of high-intensity interval trainings with the use of the "Bulgarian Bag" on the development of special endurance in wrestlers of various qualifications and speed-strength fitness level.

Methods and structure of the study. The study involved 25 freestyle wrestlers aged 17-19 years studying at the Crimean secondary vocational school (technical school) of the Olympic reserve, Simferopol district, village Krasnolesye. All athletes were divided into two functional groups: Group 1 – Control Group (CG) - 10 athletes - CMS with at least 8 years of sports training experience, who were trained according to the standard method; Group 2 - Experimental Group (EG) - 15 wrestlers engaged in freestyle wrestling, with the same experience and qualifications, who during one month, apart from the usual training sessions, performed a complex of high-intensity interval exercises with innovative sports equipment - Bulgarian Bag [6]. Given the specifics of working conditions in anaerobic modes during a wrestling match, the athletes of both groups were subject to a one-minute "throw" wrestling test developed by V.A. Romanenko to simulate the fight elements in terms of biomechanical, temporal, and dynamic parameters of movements [3]. Its essence is as follows: for 1 min, the athlete performed a 25 kg dummy (33.0% of the average body weight) throw using a certain technique ("back arch throw", which is a key element of the study of competitive activity in freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling).

When analyzing the alactic anaerobic working capacity (AAWC), the maximum workload time varied depending on the athletes’ qualification from 10 to 12 sec; glycolytic working capacity (GWC) - from 25 to 35 sec; aerobic working capacity (AWC) - 180 sec. The number of throws (N) and working time (t) were taken into account, as well as the pulse rate after loading (F). Special working capacity (SWC) of the athletes was evaluated based on the integral indicators of glycolytic working capacity and calculated according to the formulas [3]:

AAWCi, GWCi, AWCi – integral indicators of alactic anaerobic working capacity, glycolytic working capacity and aerobic working capacity of the athletes, units.; N1-3 – number of dummy throws performed using a certain technique, units; F 1-3 – pulse rate after loading, bpm; t 1-3 – working time, sec.

The assessment was made based on the relevant integral indicators (equations 1-3), taking into account not only the volume of mechanical work but also the bodily response to this workload [27].

The calculations and graphical presentation of the data obtained were carried out by means of Microsoft Excel and STATISTICA 10.0 software package. The pairwise comparison of the groups was made using the parametric Student’s t-test. In our case, the central trend measure was the arithmetic mean (M), and the scattering measure was the standard error of the mean (m). The differences were statistically significant at p<0.05 [2].

Results and discussion. The analysis of the data obtained revealed that in the intact state, the special working capacity level in the wrestlers of both groups differed in terms of the integral indicators of alactic anaerobic working capacity and glycolytic working capacity only at the level of trend.

Table 1. Special working capacity rates in CG wrestlers (n=10) based on specific test  results  in different energy supply modes after training according to standard methodology

Maximal load

Alactic anaerobic working capacity

t,sec

N, u.

F, bpm

AAWCi, u.

x±m

х±т

х± т

х± т

10,0±0,20

5±0,22

130±2,35

3,84±0,31#

Submaximal load

Glycolytic working capacity

t, sec

N, u.

F, bpm

GWCi, u.

x±m

x±m

x±m

x±m

26,8±2,16

9±1,29

192,0±1,52

1,74±0,14*

Heavy load

Aerobic working capacity

t, sec

N, u.

F, bpm

AWCi, u.

х±т

х±т

х±т

х±т

181,0±3,21

29,0±2,18

160±3,20

1,00±0,06**

Note. Here and in Table 2: t – working time, sec, N – number of dummy throws performed using a certain technique, units; F – pulse rate after loading, bpm, AAWCi, GWCi, AWCi – integral indicators of alactic anaerobic working capacity, glycolytic working capacity, and aerobic working capacity of the athletes. * – p<0.05; ** – p<0.01; *** – p<0.001 – significance of differences relative to the baseline – according to Student’s t-test.

Based on the values of the integral indicator (Table 1) - alactic anaerobic working capacity (AAWCi), only a slight trend (p≤0.053) towards an increase in the power of the creatine phosphate mechanism of the ATP resynthesis was observed in the CG. This trend was proved by the predominance of aerobic and anaerobic modes in providing training activities and reached the statistically significant (p<0.01) differences when the athletic training process included 30-40% of the maximum load power.

The temporal test parameters and the EG athletes’ bodily response to the work performed (Table 2) indicated the sufficient level of their anaerobic working capacity. This level exceeded the identical rates in the CG athletes by 7.00% (p<0.01) (see Figure).

 

Table 2. Special working capacity rates in EG wrestlers (n=15) based on results of specific test performed in different energy supply modes after "Bulgarian Bag" training cycle

Maximal load

Alactic anaerobic working capacity

t, sec

N, u.

F, bpm

AAWC, u.

x±m

х±т

х± т

х± т

10.2±0.35

10.0±0.30

140±1.90

7.00±0.19***

Submaximal load

Glycolytic working capacity

t, sec

N, u.

F, bpm

GWCi, u.

x±m

x±m

x±m

x±m

30.0±1.14

18.2±0.28

175±0.68

3.46±0.11***

Heavy load

Aerobic working capacity

t, sec

N, u.

F, bpm

AWCi, u.

х±т

х±т

х±т

х±т

180.0±2.04

42.0±1.83

158.0±2.05

1.47±0.06***

 

The glycolytic mode test was carried out at different speeds, different duration, and with different levels of tension of the body systems (see Table 1, 2). The pace and time of work were directly correlated (0.52<r<0.63) and the pulse values – inversely correlated (-0.50<r<-0.74) with the wrestlers’ level of skills. The shortest working time at the maximum level of tension of the body systems was typical of the CG athletes. They performed the test at the expense of the highest volitional efforts with sufficient motivation. It is obvious that due to the low level of qualification and the short length of training, the glycolitic energy supply mechanism had not been properly developed.

Fig. 1. Changes in relative values of special working capacity of wrestlers as a result of specific testing in different energy modes in EG (n=15) and CG (n=10) (%)

 

The determination of aerobic working capacity based on the specific test results (see Table 2) showed that the EG wrestlers performed the dummy throws at an average of 4.8 sec, while the CG ones - at 6.2 sec. The EG wrestlers demonstrated the longest working time and the largest number of holds, while the CG wrestlers - the shortest and the smallest, respectfully. Therefore, the highest aerobic working capacity rates were typical of the wrestlers with the highest level of skills.

Conclusions. In general, the dynamics of formation of wrestlers’ energy potential reflect the influence of sports training on this process. The accelerated formation of the glycolytic energy source is facilitated by specific strength loads of submaximal power. Obviously, sports training with the certain physiological modes significantly dominating changes the ratio between the energy sources of muscle activity towards the formation of the executive units of the functional system of activity.

 

References

  1. Akopyan A.O., Pankov V.A., Kim A.Yu. Formation of training methods for Greco-Roman wrestlers in new conditions of competitive activity. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2006. no. 2. pp. 2-23.

  2. Kobzar A.I. Applied Mathematical Statistics. M.: Fizmatlit publ., 2006. 238 p.

  3. Romanenko V.A. Human motor abilities. Donetsk: UK – Tsentr publ., 1999. 336 p.

  4. Tarabrina N.Yu. Muscle relaxation technique to correct thoracocervical scoliotic disorders in athletes. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2016. no. 4. pp. 30-32.

  5. Tarabrina N.Yu., Grabovskaya E.Yu., Getikov Yu.A. Specific effect of special fitness tools on speed-strength and coordination indicators of junior footballers. Nauka i sport: sovremennye tendentsii. 2016. v. 10. no. 1  (10). pp. 31-35.

  6. Tarabrina N.Yu. Psychophysiological Assessment of Law Students’ Health. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2015, no. 1, pp. 52–54.

 

Corresponding author: nata-tarabrina@mail.ru

 

Abstract

Objective of the study was to determine the effects of a complex of high-intensity interval trainings with the use of a "Bulgarian Bag" on the development of special endurance in wrestlers of various qualifications and speed-strength fitness level.

Methods and structure of the study. In view of the specifics of working in anaerobic modes during a wrestling bout, 25 freestyle wrestlers aged 17-19 years old were to perform a one-minute "takedown" test, which simulates the elements of wrestling using biomechanical, temporal and dynamic parameters of movement. Before and after the usual training cycle in the Control Group and the additional use of a set of exercises with the use of a "Bulgarian Bag" in the Experimental Group, all athletes were found to have changes in the special endurance indices.

Results and conclusions. It was found that the accelerated formation of a glycolytic energy source is facilitated by specific strength loads of submaximal power. In the glycolytic mode the test was performed by the athletes at a different pace, with different time intervals and stress levels. The pace and time of work correlate directly (0.52<r<0.63), while the pulse rates inversely (–0.50<r<–0.74) correlate with the wrestlers’ level of strength fitness. Sports trainings with predominant use of certain physiological modes significantly change the balance between the energy sources of muscular activity towards the formation of executive links of the functional system of activity.