Dynamics of heart rate adaptive potential before and after sports training

Associate Professor S.A. Glushkov1
A.K. Konstantinova2
M.K. Ershov2
A.M. Firago3
S.V. Pershikov4
1Vologda Institute of Law and Economics of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Vologda
2Lesgaft National State University of Physical Education, Sport and Health, St. Petersburg
3Gymnasium No. 622, St. Petersburg
4I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow

Objective of the study was to assess the dynamics of the adaptive potential of heart rate in the active orthostatic test before and after the training session to objectify the admission to further physical loads.
Methods and structure of the study. We examined a group of qualified all-round athletes (n=32) aged 18-23 years and qualified Master of Sports (n=14) and Candidate Master of Sports (n=18). The athletes were subjected to the active orthostatic test twice. The first testing was conducted in the morning, prior to the training session, the second - 25-30 minutes after the training on the onset of the stationary state of the RR intervals. The RR intervals were registered in accordance with the standard of 5-minute records and processed using the mathematical statistics method. The adaptive potential was estimated based on the total spectrum power value with due regard to the contribution of rapid oscillations (HF component), slow oscillations (LF component) and very slow oscillations (VLF component). The LF/HF ratio was seen as a sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. The reactivity of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system was determined by the coefficient 30:15 (K30:15).
Results and conclusions. It is shown that the post-training orthostatic heart rate variability is characterized by a slight restriction of its adaptive potential, which is compensated by the increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic tone, which is accompanied by a pronounced dynamics of the vegetative balance - the increase of sympathetic reactivity defined by the LF/HF marker. Therefore, the post-training variability of the spectral characteristics of the heart rate during orthostasis indicates the stability of the athletes' adaptive capabilities.

Keywords: functional state, adaptive reserves, physiological cost of physical load.

References

  1. Abdullaeva K.G.K., Akulina M.V., Reksha Yu.M., Gadzhimuradov F.R. Osobennosti serdechnogo ritma v predstartovy, nagruzochny i vosstanovitelny periody stress-testa [Heart rate variation profiling by stress tests in precompetitive, competitive and rehabilitation periods]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2019. No. 7. pp. 55-58.
  2. Budnikov M.Yu., Filipchenko A.I., Dazmarov N.M. Detalizatsiya kardioritmogrammy dlya prognoza fizicheskoy rabotosposobnosti [Detalization of cardiac rhythmogram to predict physical work capacity]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2019. No. 1. p. 19.
  3. Lapkin M.M., Platonov A.V., Truntyagin A.A., Gadzhimuradov F.R. Znachenie prediktorov vyzhivaemosti v molodezhnoy vyborke [Value of survival predictors in youth sample]. Profilakticheskaya meditsina. 2018. v. 21. No. 3. pp. 57-61.
  4. Lapkin M.M., Ssorin S.S., Petrov A.B. Izmenchivost kardiointervalov i prognoz nagruzochnoy tolerantnosti [Variability of cardio intervals and prognosis of exercise tolerance]. Serdtse: Journal for Practitioners. 2016. v. 15. No. 3 (89). pp. 197-205.
  5. Meshcheryakov A.F., Volkov V.F., Glushkov S.A., Vorobyov A.N. Vliyanie lichnostnykh osobennostey sportsmenov na skorost vosstanovleniya posle maksimalnoy fizicheskoy nagruzki [Recovery rate after maximal exercise in view of athletes individual characteristics]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2019. No. 11. p. 33.
  6. Pokhachevskiy A.L., Sadelnikov B.A. Patent 2355301RF. Sposob opredeleniya perenosimosti fizicheskoy nagruzki po tochke uskolzaniya serdechnogo ritma ot vegetativnogo kontrolya [Patent 2355301RF. A method for determining tolerance of physical activity at the point of slipping of heart rhythm from vegetative control]. no. 2007143527/14; appl. 11/23.11.2007.
  7. Pokhachevskiy A.L., Sadelnikov B.A. Patent 2468740 RF. Sposob opredeleniya vegetativnoy aktivnosti pri nagruzochnom testirovanii [RF patent 2468740. A method for determining vegetative activity during load testing]. No. 2011110624/14; appl. 03/21/2011.
  8. Lapkin M.M., Mikhaylov V.M., Petrov A.B. Patent 2613921 RF. Sposob opredeleniya vosstanovitelnogo potentsiala 2 sportsmenov, razvivayushchikh aerobno-anaerobnuyu vynoslivost. [RF Patent 2613921. A method for determining recovery potential of 2 athletes developing aerobic-anaerobic endurance]. no. 2015,137,142; appl. 09/01/2015.
  9. Lapkin M.M., Mikhaylov V.M., Petrov A.B., Reksha Yu.M. Patent 2613937 RF. Sposob opredeleniya potentsialnogo urovnya fizicheskoy rabotosposobnosti pri submaksimalnom nagruzochnom testirovanii [Patent 2613937 of the Russian Federation. A method for determining potential level of physical performance during submaximal load testing]. No. 2015136686; appl. 08/29/2015.
  10. Pokhachevskiy A.L. Izmenchivost serdechnogo ritma v vosstanovitelny period ergometrii [Heart rate variability in recovery period of ergometry]. Lechebnaya fizkultura i sportivnaya meditsina. 2014. No. 5 (125). pp. 18-23.
  11. Task Forceof the European of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Heart Rate Variability. Standarts of Measurements, Physiological Interpretation, and Clinical Use (1996), Circulation, Vol. 93, pp. 1043-1065.