Sports and politics in context of methodological analysis

Dr.Hab., PhD, Associate Professor A.A. Peredelsky1
Dr.Sc.Polyt., Associate Professor P.S. Seleznev2
Dr.Sc.Polyt., Professor I.V. Fedyakin3
1Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow
2Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow
3Russian University of Transport, Moscow

Keywords: sports, politics, types, forms, states, models, specific truth.

Background. Sports and politics - this is how an entire topical section, which includes numerous works on the issues of the relationship between these social phenomena and life spheres, is designated. The modality of the authors' statements on this subject matter of analysis varies quite greatly: from the denial of these relationships as a social pattern to the assertion of their objective reality and inevitable social dependence.

These divergent positions become related to the application of factual, event-driven verification, guidance by examples and statements that can always be found in any, even the most contradictory, social context.

Primitive verification, enumeration and summation of coordinate examples is, in the apt words of the classical German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, falling into "bad infinity". This fall suggests that many authors lack knowledge and ability to use scientific-philosophical and historical-political methodology.

Objective of the study was to conduct a theoretical analysis of the basic theses and classifications enabling to build a specific and contextual scientific algorithm.

Results and discussion. Politics is the sphere of activity and relationships between large social groups and well-organized factions aware of their group interest and influencing the state authority through lobbying or direct functioning of social management institutions (organizations and institutions). Based on this definition, by far not every social organization or group belongs to the political sphere, only those which interests rise to the level of distribution, preservation, transfer of state power, that is to the level of influence on the form, scope, limits, tactics, and strategies of public administration, influence on the political regime and foreign and domestic policies.

The basic impulse to establish and change the political regime is the financial and economic interest of the ruling elite (in the words of Vilfredo Pareto) or the political class (according to the terminology of another Italian sociologist, Gaetano Mosca). We see that politics is considered to be a concentrated expression of the economy for a reason.

Under the same principle, law is seen as a concentrated expression of policy, as it primarily serves the interests of the ruling political faction and the financial and economic authorities supporting it. This implies the formation of various economic (production or consumption, amateur or professional) models of sports development.

Based on the above, we tend to exclude the extended understanding of the term "policy", which implies the scope of any relationships and activities in the aspects of command and execution, domination and subordination, strategic and tactical planning. In other words, we do not view policy in those aspects in which many authors view the political implications of the activities of sports clubs, federations, individual athletes, carried out at the request or by order of the heads of municipal or regional authorities.

Let us now analyze the phenomenon of the term "sports".

In the historical context, the term "sports" has acquired a wide interpretation: from the polyspecies culture of organizing and conducting competitions to the risky and intemperate enthusiasm for entertainment and leisure activities. Such activities include collecting, gambling, traveling, flirting, beer competitions, etc.

Over time, however, the interpretation of sports has taken a definite shape, fitting within the framework of locomotor activity and even more narrowly - within the framework of actual competitive activity, involving a number of characteristics borrowed from the Antiquity times. The latter, historically conditioned narrow interpretation, revives three competing sports models: amateur, professional, and Olympic. Elite sports, in which elite mature (sexually mature men and women) athletes are engaged, stands out in each of these models. It is elite sports that is consistently and continuously commercialized and, as a result, is legitimately politicized, that is, "takes service" with the capital and the state, becomes profitable production, state mechanism, and institute of social exclusion.

It is elite sports where sports and politics are actually integrated.

The XX century is characterized by the final formation of a number of social sports models - economic (production and consumption), social (ethnic, class-specific, national, international), and political (pre-war and post-war, democratic, plutocratic, authoritarian) models of elite sports. Although all these models are commercialized, professionalized and politicized in varying degrees, this is a regularly and ultimately growing trend.

The provided list of classification features of politics and sports makes it possible to build a specific and contextual scientific algorithm for studying their interrelation in the form of a software-based test where questions having a cause-and-effect relationship.

The question pool was as follows:

1. What kind of sport, in which country and in what particular period of its history should it be studied for its relationship with politics?

2. What is the real political weight and potential of this sport in this country during the survey period?

3. What is the real domestic and foreign policy of the state during the survey period, and what means are being used to achieve political objectives?

4. Specify the political weight and potential of this sport in a given political context.

5. Define the scope, direction, sources of financing the development of this sport under the given conditions.

The case study methodology implies that there is a special "key" to be used in a point rating system, based on which it becomes possible to prepare an analytical report in each specific case.

Conclusion. From the standpoint of the philosophy of science, historical and political science, it is the volume and content of the terms "sports", "politics" that were considered, which enabled to build a specific and contextual scientific algorithm for studying the relationship between these social phenomena.

References

  1. Is the relationship between sport and politics harmful?. Problemy mezhdunarodnogo sportivnogo dvizheniya. 1981. no. 4. M.: VNIIFK publ.. pp. 12-19.
  2. Peredelskiy A.A. Two-faced Janus. Sport as a social phenomenon: essence and anthological grounds. Moscow: Sport publ., 2016, 312 p.
  3. Peredel'skiy A.A., Kirtoake A. Religious and Political Grounds of Agonal-Sports Tradition and Its Effect on Theory and Methodology of Sports Education. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2014. no.10. pp. 34-36.
  4. Stolyarov V.I., Sagalakov D.A., Stopnikova E.V. [ed.] Relationship of sport and politics (socio-philosophical and methodological analysis). Competitive Humanism. no. 3. Relationship of sports and politics from the standpoint of humanism: Col. pap. M.: SpArt RSUPC, Problem Council of RAE on Physical Education and Sports, Fund for Sport and Peace Culture, 2005. pp. 5-123.
  5. Loy John W., McPherson Barry D., Kenyon Gerald (1978) Sport and Social Systems: A Guide to the Analysis, Problems and Literature. London : Addison–Wesley Publishing Company, 1978. pp. 287–290.

Corresponding author: alexperedelskiya@mail.ru

Abstract

Sports and politics - this is how an entire topical section, which includes numerous works on the issues of the relationship between these social phenomena and life spheres, is designated.

The article is devoted to the methodology of study of the large topical section "Sports and Politics", which includes solutions of various authors for the problems of the relationship between these social phenomena and life spheres.

From the standpoint of the philosophy of science, historical and political science, it is the volume and content of the terms "sports", "politics", as well as the basic laws of their social functioning, reflected in the classification of types, conditions, forms, and models that are considered. The provided list of classification features of politics and sports makes it possible to build a specific and contextual scientific algorithm for studying their interrelation in the form of a software-based test where questions having a cause-and-effect relationship.

The case study methodology implies that there is a special "key" to be used in a point rating system, based on which it becomes possible to prepare an analytical report in each specific case.