Logorythmics based school physical education model for learning, correction and development

PhD, Professor V.A. Vishnevsky1
A.G. Garaeva2
PhD, Associate Professor V.A. Rodionov1
1Surgut State University, Surgut
2Beloyarsk secondary school № 3, Surgut district

Keywords: logarithmic physical education, mentally retarded schoolchildren

Background. Revision of the national educational paradigm has resulted in the school educational system reform with a special priority to the general knowledge and health, correctional and developmental aspects of the educational service [1, 2, 4]. The reform, however, is complicated by the growing heterogeneity of the school population that requires the special efforts to expand and improve inclusive education services. For the last decade the national school system has reported a rapid growth in the school population diagnosed with speech and language impairments and psychomotor disorders.

The growing phonemic, lexical and grammatical disorders of speech and motor functions are known to seriously impede progress of schoolchildren with such impairments. This is one the reason why modern kinesiology has developed a new field called logarithmics designed to correct or mitigate speech and language impairments by musical, verbal and motor methods and tools [3]. The relevant theoretical and practical study reports offer and analyze a variety of logarithmic concepts and practices that, however, are still insufficiently grounded and their benefits if any are seldom verified by dependable statistical data. This study was intended to address this issue.

Objective of the study was rate the short- and long-term benefits of our new logarithmic correcitonal and developmental model for mentally retarded schoolchildren.

Methods and structure of the study. We sampled for the study 10.56±0.51 year-old mentally retarded schoolchildren. Their current (short-term) progress was rated prior to and after the logarithmic correcitonal and developmental classes by tests of their vegetative functions, neurohumoral regulation, mental status, well-being, activity and mood. For the long-term progress rating purposes, we split up the sample into Experimental and Reference Groups (EG, RG) that had no statistically significant intergroup difference prior to the logarithmic correcitonal and developmental model testing experiment.

The RG was trained by a speech therapist using the traditional correctional and developmental method; and the EG was trained as required by the new logarithmic correcitonal and developmental service model, with the new service including: varied-direction walking and marching practices with verbal support from the instructor; breathing exercises; articulation training practices with/ without music; rhythmic practices including different games; dramatic pieces; local birds/ animals movements mimicking practices; physical exercises synchronized with rhythmic reading of verses; singing; special role games; relaxation practices with calm music, sounds of nature, poems etc.

Benefits of the new logarithmic correcitonal and developmental model were rated by the pre- versus post-experimental tests of the EG and RG to rate progress in the following aspects: speech development on the whole and its components including articulation motility, pronunciation, phonemic perception, language analyzing, vocabulary, grammar, speech fluency, role communication, reading and writing abilities; followed by calculations of an integral progress index indicative of individual learning ability (‘educational status’) based on the knowledge, culture and development tests rates.

Results and discussion. The pre- versus post-class tests (see Table 1) found the regulation systems being highly stressed prior to classes (with a resting stress index averaging 143.2 ± 90.2 points) and stressful responses in the orthostatic test (HR growth by 20+ beats per min). Post-class tests found moderate activity growths in the sympathetic nervous system and falls in the parasympathetic nervous system activity. Thus the sympathetic nervous system activity growth tested group increased from 33.3% to 55.6%; parasympathetic nervous system activity fall tested group contracted from 22.2% to 11.1%; and mixed group contracted from 44.4% to 33.3%; with only the orthostatic test data found statistically significant; and with the resting tests showing the same pattern.

Table 1. Logarithmic correcitonal and developmental model for mentally retarded schoolchildren (n=18): pre- versus post-class test data

Tests, Μ±σ


Pre-class test

Post-class test





HR average, s

0,722± 0,068

0,580± 0,027

0,693± 0,078

0,544± 0,033*

SDNNt, s

0,058± 0,025

0,041± 0,014

0,049± 0,022

0,031± 0,010*

Mode amplitude, %

39,3± 12,3

48,7± 12,8

41,6± 15,4

58,8± 17,9*

Stress index SI, points

143,2± 90,2

264,3± 140,4

192,5± 159,8

445,9± 269,8*

Variation range, s

0,251± 0,097

0,199± 0,077

0,221± 0,097

0,145± 0,044*

Mode, s

0,703± 0,072

0,566± 0,026

0,695± 0,080

0,535± 0,049*


0,045± 0,016

0,030± 0,012

0,042± 0,019

0,019± 0,006*

HR, beats per min

83± 7

103± 5

87± 10

110± 7*

Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg

57± 7


62± 6*


Wellbeing, points

6,4± 0,7


7,0± 1,0   *


Note: *significance change, p < 0.05

Despite the significantly better reported wellbeing test rates, the following regresses were found by the tests: stress index growth; diastolic blood pressure growth; and a regress in the orthostatic test rates. The fairly adapting group was found to contract from 33.3% to 11.1%; and the stressed adaptability tested group grew from 33.3% to 55.6%; whilst the psycho-physiological status of the sample showed no significant progress.

Pre-class tests found the group with normal regulatory system functionality making up only 22.2%. Furthermore, 33.3% and 44.4% were tested with the sympathetic nervous system activity growth and regulatory system stresses (due to sympathetic/ parasympathetic process imbalances), respectively. Responses to the classes were found selective: on the one hand, the group tested with normal regulatory system functionality grew to 33.3%; and on the other hand, 22% was tested with very high regulatory system stresses due to the simultaneous regresses in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.

The pre-class orthostatic tests rated 44.4% with the normal transient processes and adequate cardiovascular system responses; whilst the post-class tests found regress as the normal/ expressed response tested group contracted to 11.1% and the slower-response group grew to 77.8%. The pre-class vegetative support tests rated 33.3% within the norm; whilst the post-class tests found the normally supported group contracting to 11.1%, and the excessively/ highly supported group growing to 22.2%.

Therefore, on the whole the responses to logarithmic correcitonal and developmental classes may be considered adequate, although the imbalances/ stresses prior to the classes and the selective responses to the classes may be indicative of the need to have the physical education service individualized as much as possible, with the physical workloads prudently customized to the actual individual functionality test rates. Given in Table 2 hereunder are the tested long-term effects of the logarithmic correcitonal and developmental model on the speech development and learning abilities (educational statuses).

Table 2. Long-term effects of the logarithmic correcitonal and developmental model on the speech development and learning abilities of the mentally retarded schoolchildren

Tests, Μ±σ



EG, n = 21

RG, n = 23

EG, n = 21

RG, n = 23

Learning ability, points





Pronunciation, points

3,25 ± 1,42

2,91 ± 0,94

4,50 ± 0,67*

3,54 ± 0,69

Phonemic perception, points

2,50 ± 0,52

2,46 ± 0,52

3,75 ± 0,75*

3,00 ± 0,62

Language analyzing ability, points

2,58 ± 0,51

2,27 ± 0,47

3,75 ± 0,75*

3,09 ± 0,54

Fluency of speech, points

2,83 ± 0,38

2,73 ± 0,47

3,75 ± 0,62*

3,27 ± 0,47

Reading, points

2,41 ± 0,66

2,73 ± 0,65

4,08 ± 0,66*

3,27 ± 0,47

Speech development level, points

2,62 ± 0,51

2,61 ± 0,45

3,79 ± 0,56*

3,25 ± 0,51

Data processing, characters/ min





Data processing accuracy, points





Note: *significant change, p < 0.05

The above data demonstrates that the logarithmic correcitonal and developmental classes were beneficial for the EG as verified by the significant group progresses in the speech development levels, pronunciation, phonemic perception, language analyzing abilities, fluency of speech and reading abilities; plus positive trends were registered in articular motility, vocabulary, grammar and verbal communication skills test rates.

As for the learning abilities (educational statuses), we found growth in the following tests rates: learning competences (63.6 ± 8.1 to 72.7 ± 10 points, p <0.05); health culture forming needs and motivations (52.5 ± 12.2 to 61.6 ± 10 points, p <0.05); health culture forming priorities (46.1 ± 14.5 to 61.1 ± 12.5 points, p <0.05); health-improvement experiences (54.8 ± 10.4 to 68.6 ± 10.3 points, p <0.05); learning determinations (53, 1 ± 9.8 to 63.7 ± 12.8 points, p <0.05); sociometrics (37.2 ± 17.9 to 52.7 ± 18.4 points, p <0.05); personality anxiety (30.4 ± 16.1 to 44.7 ± 19.4 points, p <0.05); cognitive component of conscious morality (38.6 ± 6.8 to 61.4 ± 13.0 points, p <0.05); behavioral component of morality (37.6 ± 9.6 to 49.4 ± 11.6 points, p <0.05); morality development level (37.5 ± 9.2 to 49.8 ± 11.1 points, p <0.05); and the data processing accuracy (36.3 ± 12.1 to 52.7 ± 10 points, p <0.05).

Conclusion. The logarithmic correctional and developmental model for mentally retarded schoolchildren was tested beneficial and may be recommended for the speech and language impairments correction and learning ability improvement initiatives. The logarithmic correcitonal and developmental model piloting and testing experiment resulted in the EG being successfully qualified for regular classes.


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Corresponding author: apokin_vv@mail.ru

National educational system reforms radically change the school physical education paradigm to prioritize the all-round educational, health, corrective, developmental and inclusive educational aspects of the physical education service to the increasingly diverse school population. The national health statistics for the last few years have reported the numbers of children with psychomotor and verbal disorders being on the rise. The study analyzes benefits of a logorythmics based school physical education model for learning, correction and development in application to children with mental retardations. The pre-experimental functionality tests found high tension of the regulation systems and negative responses to the orthostatic probes. Immediate effects of the logorythmics based school physical education model were found to include: moderate growth of the sympathetic nervous system response and decrease in the parasympathetic nervous system. Despite the significant progress in the wellbeing self-rates, tests showed further growth in the stress index, diastolic blood pressure, and worsening of the orthostatic test rates. The proportion of the satisfactorily-adapted children was tested to fall from 33.3% to 11.1%: and with the growing stress on adaptation systems found to grow from 33.3% to 55.6%. After the year-long model piloting experiment, the EG was tested with significant verbal progress as verified by the general speech development, pronunciation, phonemic perception, language analytical, speaking fluency and reading aspects and skills. The standard education quality rates was tested to meaningfully grow too, particularly the educational competences, needs and motivations in the health culture domain, practical health experience, learning determination, sociometrics, personality anxiety, cognitive and behavioral components of moral consciousness, ethical development and the data processing accuracy test rates.