Individual kinesiological resource mobilizing in training process

Postgraduate student D.E. Golovko1
Dr. Hab., Associate Professor A.I. Zagrevskaya1
1Tomsk State University, Tomsk

Keywords: kinesiological resource, psychomotor qualities test rates, motor activity, theoretical and practical training system, motor qualities, competitive performance.

Background. Practical athletic training is known to be the most important part of the individual sport career. It is commonly defined as the special controlled training process dominated by the physical practices to secure high competitive fitness for success in the sport discipline. As things now stand, the competitiveness in many sports grows so fast that athletes need to rapidly progress in the physical, technical, tactical and psychological fitness aspects, and this is the reason why the theoretical and practical training systems are being persistently improved in every sport discipline, with a special priority to the physical progress methods and tools most efficient in mobilizing the individual kinesiological resource. Our analysis of reference literature shows that the modern theoretical and practical training systems make an emphasis on the morphological and functional progress and athletic motor skills, albeit they give little if any attention to the psychomotor domain improvement aspects [5, 7, 8]. As provided by some analysts, individual psychomotor domain is determined by the motor qualities and may be defined as the objective individual perceptions with the range of mental reflection forms – from the basic sensations to the highest forms of intellectual activity [1, 2, 4, 6]. The concept of psychomotor domain offered by I.M. Sechenov, a prominent Russian physiologist, refers to analyzed and differentiated motor responses to varied-modality external signals affecting the sensory systems to trigger the visual, auditory, tactile, proprioceptive and vestibular reactions. Experts generally agree that the individual progress in the technical and tactical aspects largely depends on the specific psychomotor qualities [5, 8] critical for the competitive accomplishments [6]. Therefore, the modern sport mastery and progress test and focused excellence systems need to give a special priority to the timely and accurate tests of the individual psychomotor qualities within the sport-specific kinesiological resource.

Objective of the study was to provide a theoretical basis for an integrated kinesiological resource mobilizing training model.

Methods and structure of the study. For the purposes of the study we analyzed and summarized the relevant theoretical, practical, psychological and pedagogical literature, our own educational study data and practical (own and others’) training experiences in different sports in the context of the theoretical and practical training system quality management in the physical and technical training aspects.

Results and discussion. We should remind that the concept of kinesiological resource was introduced into the national science by V.K. Bal’sevich (2000), a prominent scientist who defined it as the unity of morphological, functional, biomechanical, psychological, psychomotor, movement coordination and physicality conditioning individual qualities critical for competitive progress. It should be underlined that V.K. Bal’sevich draws a separation line between the concepts of physical resource and kinesiological resource.

Individual physical resource may be defined as the combination of morphological and functional systems and physical qualities rated by the relevant qualitative and quantitative criteria [1]. As for the kinesiological resource, its notion covers, as provided by the author, the psychological aspect of the individual motor functionality and its progress. It should be mentioned that the individual motor functionality is determined by the psycho-physiological basis with the motor qualities and progress potential. As provided by the sport experts, it is the individual psychomotor abilities that are critical for the potential competitive progress and mastery [3, 4, 6, 8]. Thus V.P. Ozerov (2002) analyzed the range of human psychomotor abilities classified into the following five levels: top Level V implying a full range of universally developed multiple psychomotor abilities; Level IV covering the mental and motor components; Level III that includes group components, namely the mental, sensory, motor and energy generation ones; Level II that refers to the subgroup components i.e., the mental component, for instance, is classified into the thinking, memorizing, attention and volitional control aspects; sensor component into the distinctive movement sensations, motor memory, responsiveness and movement coordination; motor component classified into the responsiveness, movement coordination and muscular system performance; and the energy component split up into the cardiovascular, muscular and respiratory system performances; and Level I that includes a wide range of psycho-physiological gifts, and each of them may contribute to the progress of such special aspects as the nervous system strength; plasticity, balance and coordination of the nervous processes; muscular fiber sensitivity; sensory controls in the spinal nodes, etc. [6]. Furthermore, Y.K. Gaverdovsky [3, p. 432] mentioned the following psychomotor qualities of special importance for progress in many sport disciplines:

1. Motor responsiveness critical for the movement speed and accuracy and, hence, given a special priority by many sports including team sports and martial arts.

2. Kinesthetic sensitivity i.e. the joint movement/ postural/ body segments control ability under pressure – the quality of special importance in the complex coordination intensive sports.

3. Visual perception as the most informative reception quality with its movement pacing and timing, process speed rating, movement responding, environmental sensitivity and other aspects.

4. Vestibular perception of special importance for the sports particularly demanding to the movement spacing (orientation control) qualities.

5. Timing controls i.e. perceptions of time intervals and pace (by the relevant kinesthetic, visual auditory etc. controls) with the ability to timely analyze, control and harmonize movements in every element.

6. Tactile sensitivity critical for success in the sport disciplines that require fine physical sensations including the feeling of apparatuses/ balls etc. – in the modern rhythmic gymnastics, basketball, table tennis, etc. [6].

Therefore, an athletic psychomotor domain may be interpreted as the range of physical and psychological performance self-rating abilities with the relevant movement perceptions and controls. Any psychomotor functionality developing initiative must analyze the background psychomotor functionality level and its manifestations. Having analyzed the relevant theoretical and practical literature on the subject, we developed the following comprehensive test system:

- Test module to rate the simple sensorimotor responses plus the auditory and visual analyzer functions – including the simple sensorimotor response time test, with the individual reaction to a light signal by hand or foot rated by the time lag between the actual signal and response;

- Tapping test to rate the maximal achievable limb movement pace, maximal movement frequency and the relevant qualities of the nervous system; and

- Flash distinguishing test to rate the functional lability of the visual sensory system and central nervous system on the whole i.e. the data perception and processing qualities

- Kinesthesiometric test of the visually uncontrolled performance to analyze the processes behind the position locating/ pacing, control and movement control qualities plus the muscular performance controls driven by the signals processed by the cerebral cortex;

- Dosed dynamometry test to rate the feel of effort in different sports and analyze the individual muscular effort control ability as dictated by the process goal; and

- Vestibular control test to rate the vestibular analyzer performance by the special tests with angular rotations.

Conclusion.The study data and analyses give the reasons to conclude that the psychomotor performance test rates generated by the proposed test model make it possible to rate the individual psychomotor resource and variations thereof to make timely correction to the training process on a sport-specific basis.

References

  1. Bal'sevich V.K. Human Ontokinesiology. Moscow: Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury i sporta publ., 2000, 275 p., il.
  2. Bernstein N.A. Essays on movements physiology and activity physiology. M., 1966. 349  p.
  3. Gaverdovskiy Yu.K. Learning exercise technique. Biomechanics. Methodology. Didactics. M.: Fizkultura i sport publ., 2007. 912 p.
  4. Korenberg V.B. Fundamentals of sports kinesiology. Study guide. Moscow: Sovetskiy sport publ, 2005, 232 p.
  5. Markov G.V., Romanov V.I., Gladkov V.N. System to restore and increase physical performance in elite sports. M.: Sovetskiy sport publ., 2010. 52 p.
  6. Ozerov V.P. Psychomotor abilities in man. Dubna: Fenix publ., 2002, 320 p.
  7. Sosunovskiy V.S., Zagrevskaya A.I. Kinesiological potential of senior schoolchildren. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, no. 10, pp. 62-64.
  8. Surkov V.I. Athlete's psychomotor system. M.: Fizkultura i sport publ., 2007. 127 p.

Corresponding author: golowkodenisewgenevich@inbox.ru

Abstract

Practical trainings in sports may be defined as the special assisted physical education process geared to physically and mentally train athlete in many aspects for success. The given study analyzes the individual kinesiological resource mobilizing aspect for the training system efficiency improvement purposes.

Objective of the study was to provide a theoretical basis for an integrated kinesiological resource mobilizing training model.

The study demonstrates that an athletic kinesiological resource may be interpreted as the harmonic combination of anthropological, functional, biomechanical, mental, movement coordination and physical fitness rates. It was found that the competitive successes in most of the sport disciplines largely depend on the psychomotor kinesiological resource rates critical for the individual performance although the sport science is still in need of integrated psychomotor qualities test methods. Based on the study data, we produced a theoretically grounded test system to rate the athletes’ psychomotor qualities in context of the individual kinesiological resource to improve the theoretical and practical training system design and management standards in different sports.