Age-specific anthropometric characteristics variation rates in speed skating sport

PhD, Associate Professor M.V. Bakanov1
PhD, Associate Professor D.M. Voronin1
PhD, Professor A.V. Titlov2
1State University of Humanities and Technology, Orekhovo-Zuevo, Moscow Region
2State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Moscow Region

Keywords: speed skating, sports, anthropometric characteristics, morphology, age, tissue.

Background. Multiple study reports and analyses show that the athletes’ adaptation to physical trainings is age-specific 1, 2, 4, 5 with the adaptation responses in every age group depending on the training models and intensities 2, 6, 8. Thus the adolescent cardiovascular system growth is associated with in-creases of heart size, stroke and minute volume [1, 2, 12]. At the same time, the bodily physical perfor-mance/ functionality may be modified by reasonably rated (by scopes and intensities) physical training systems 3, 10, 11.
Functional progress in junior sports is known to be driven by the growth of the oxygen supply and muscu-lar consumption systems 2, 7, 9. Trainings boost the glycogen contents in the working muscles, with its consumption growing in correlation with the growing activity of some specific enzymes. Physical per-formance generally depends on the muscular stocks of glycogen in the period of adaptation to the physi-cal workloads 2, 13. The cardiovascular system functionality growth with the physical trainings is asso-ciated with the HR slowing down under the sub-maximal loads 12. Correlations of the aerobic function-ality with the work and rest periods were found by the experiments with the 4-27-min work plus 1-3-min rest periods that resulted in the significant growth of the maximal oxygen demand (VO2) by 7-10%.
Objective of the study was to rate the age-specific anthropometric characteristics variations in the speed skating sport.
Methods and structure of the study. We rated in the study the muscle-to-fat mass ratios by the individ-ual and group anthropometrics/ morphology analyses followed by the statistical data analysis. Given in the Tables hereunder are the morphological rates, components and segmental limb anthropometric charac-teristics. Sampled for the tests were 58 skaters (29 all-round competitors and 29 sprinters) classified into 5 groups by the fat to muscle mass ratios – to find the group anthropometric characterustics variations ver-sus performance. A special Experimental Group (EG, n=16) included junior skaters (n=16) trained by a special training system, with their morphological rates analyzed versus that of the Reference Group (RG) composed of adult highly skilled skaters.

Table 1. Junior EG versus adult RG: key anthropometric characteristics

Rate

Age

Body length

Body mass

Muscle mass

Fat mass

Bone mass

kg

%

kg

%

kg

%

Junior EG

Х

16,0

172,2

63,8

32,9

51,6

6,89

10,76

11,44

17,97

Sx

0,26

2,19

1,68

0,88

0,48

0,36

0,39

0,33

0,48

Σ

0,82

6,92

5,33

2,79

1,51

1,12

1,23

1,04

1,53

cV

5,1

4,0

8,4

8,5

2,9

16,3

11,4

9,1

8,5

Adult RG

X

21,7

176,1

84,43

42,28

50,60

14,78

16,88

12,5

15,5

Sx

1,31

3,05

6,46

1,43

2,21

3,61

2,79

0,75

0,93

Σ

2,63

6,09

12,92

2,85

4,42

7,22

5,58

1,68

2,08

cV

12,1

3,46

15,30

6,74

8,74

48,7

33,1

13,4

13,4

Note: Х – average; Sx – confidence; Σ – deviation; cV (%) – variation ratio

Results and discussion. In the precompetitive period, as provided by the study data and analyses, the group anthropometric characteristics varied within the average range of the modern skating sport, with the muscle and fat masses averaging 51.4±1.53% and 11.31±1.85%, respectively. Such ratio may be inter-preted as indirectly indicative of the mixed/ anaerobic workloads with an emphasis on the strength and speed-strength endurance dominating in the precompetitive period when the basic fitness rate is still low – apparently due to the shortage of aerobic trainings that generally boost the general bodily energy genera-tion resource as a basis for the training and competitive activity, and for an efficient rehabilitation. We obtained the following anthropometric data: body length and mass; body proportions and limb segments (shoulder, forearm, thigh and shin), segmental skin folds (on the shoulder blade, triceps, biceps, forearm, chest, stomach, thigh and shin); and calculated the body compositions including the muscle, fat and bone masses.

Table 2. Junior EG versus adult RG: segmental anthropometric characteristics

 

Length, cm

Chest, frontal

Chest, sagittal

Leg/ body

Shin/ thigh

Leg

Thigh

Shin

Arm

Shoulder

Forearm

Junior EG

Х

93,16

46,83

39,75

76,82

31,79

26,12

27,13

18,37

53,16

85,11

Sx

1,47

1,04

0,65

0,94

0,40

0,66

0,54

0,41

0,99

1,69

Σ

4,66

3,30

2,04

2,96

1,27

2,09

1,70

1,29

3,14

5,35

cV

5,0

7,1

5,0

3,8

4,0

8,1

6,3

7,1

5,9

6,3

Adult RG

Х

96,02

48,94

40,12

79,04

34,02

25,04

29,66

20,48

53,78

82,16

Sx

2,49

1,47

1,76

2,23

1,01

1,23

0,77

0,78

0,56

3,75

Σ

5,57

3,29

3,93

4,98

2,27

2,76

1,73

1,74

1,26

8,39

cV

5,8

6,7

9,7

6,3

6,7

11,0

5,8

8,5

2,3

10,2

Note: Х – average; Sx – confidence; Σ – deviation; cV (%) – variation ratio

The morphological grouping of the sample based on the muscle-to-fat mass ratio as the key bodily adapt-ability rate confirmed our prior assumptions on the group morphology. Thus the junior EG was tested with the following: short (48 to 51.9%) and medium (52-53.9%) muscle masses in 5 and 7 athletes; and normal (12-14%) and subnormal (10-12%) fat masses in 6 and 6 athletes, respectively. Despite the test rates varying in a wide range, we classified the sample into the following groups based on the muscle and fat masses and ratios.
Group one with the high muscle and fat mass to the total body mass ratios. Such athletes are tested with the high strength rates versus low endurance rates and limited energy generation resource for the training and competitive workloads, although their current rehabilitation resource may be adequate. This function-ality may be explained, among other reasons, by the shortage of training workloads and the dominant speed-strength trainings at sacrifice of the aerobic training components.
Group two with the medium muscle and fat masses. Such morphology may be due to the insufficient spe-cial fitness as a result of the trainings giving a high priority to the mixed/ anaerobic work at sacrifice of the conditioning and developing physical trainings.
Group three with the medium muscle mass and high fat mass. Such skaters are normally tested with the high strength and limited endurance rates, plus limited energy generation resource for the training and competitive workloads, although their current rehab resource may be adequate. This functionality may be explained, among other reasons, by the shortage of training workloads and the dominant speed-strength trainings at sacrifice of the aerobic training components.
Group four with the low muscle mass and high fat mass – typical for low physical fitness; with the low physicality associated with the inhibited energy generation resource and limited rehabilitation resource under the training and competitive pressures.
Group five with the low muscle mass and medium fat mass associated with the low functionality rates. This situation typically results from long trainings giving a special priority to the strength endurance at sacrifice of the current rehabilitation resource, with no attention to the background fitness. In case of long competitive workloads uncompensated by reasonable recovery periods, the group is recommended the share of aerobic and sub-maximal strength trainings being increased with adequate rehabilitation schemes.
We found, therefore, that the relatively high fat mass appears to be the key morphological factor of limit-ing effect on the special performance in the modern speed skating sport. It may result from the shortage of aerobic trainings and, hence, shortage of general endurance. This is the reason why the long-term training systems for such athletes are recommended to: (1) step up the share of aerobic trainings; (2) reasonably plan the rehabilitation program on an individualized basis; and 3) increase the share of the compensatory and recovery service.
Conclusion. The study data and analyses provided the morphological and functionality profiles of the skaters that may be beneficial for the physical training system design and management purposes with a special priority to the individual anthropometric characteristics of limiting and facilitating effects on the athletes’ functionality rates.

References

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Corresponding author: doctordennis@yandex.ru

Abstract
Multiple study reports and analyses show that the athletes’ adaptation to physical trainings is age-specific, with the adaptation responses in every age group depending on the training models and intensities. Thus the adolescent cardiovascular system growth is associated with increases of the heart size, stroke and mi-nute volume. At the same time, the bodily physical performance/ functionality may be modified by rea-sonably rated (by scopes and intensities) physical workloads. The study was designed to analyze the age- and fitness-specific anthropometrics variations in the speed skaters’ adaptation periods. The national study reports show the age-specific adaptation being dependent on the physical training workloads, mod-els and intensities.
Objective of the study was to rate the age-specific anthropometrics variations in the speed skating sport. We made detailed analyses of the muscle and fat mass variations versus the anthropometric data in the training process to obtain the anthropometrics (including limb length rates) variation profiles. Sampled for the tests were 58 skaters classified into 5 groups by the fat to muscle mass ratios to find the group an-thropometrics variations.