PhD, Associate Professor M.A. Rogozhnikov1
PhD, Professor K.N. Dementiev1
PhD, Associate Professor V.V. Volsky1
1 St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, St. Petersburg
Keywords: basketball, movement coordination, throw accuracy, fatigue
Background. Shooting accuracy in basketball is known to be best trained in the compensatory fatigue phase  with the progressively growing general fatigue when the athlete is still able to cope with the game intensity for some time by individual adjustments to the movement biomechanics . Analyses of the basketball shooting accuracy trainings in the compensatory fatigue phase found that the multiple repetitions with the growing fatigue result in the nervous-muscular performance disorders [1, 6] including (1) visual analyzer disorders/ malfunctions; (b) ball control disorders; (c) movement coordination imbalances in the throw sequences etc. Many sport specialists make resort to the body weight applying practices in the trainings to achieve the compensatory fatigue phase [2, 5] although these trainings are usually still unable to reset the habitual movement coordination patterns in the shooting skills. It is assumed that variable weights (barbell, dumbbells) may solve this problem; and we would recommend applying the powerlifting toolkit for this purpose .
Objective of the study was to test benefits of a new basketball shooting accuracy improving powerlifting training technology applicable in the compensatory fatigue phase.
Methods and structure of the study. The new training technology testing experiment was run in January through March 2019. Sampled for the tests were the St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPUACE) basketball team members (n=20, including 10 males and 10 females) qualified Masters of Sports (n=4) and Class I athletes (n=8). The sample was split into Experimental Group (EG) and Reference Group (RG) of 10 people each with equal (5+5) gender shares.
The pre- and post-experimental shooting accuracy tests included standing unhampered and moving hampered (game situations mimicking) tests. Test 1 included standing shots from five points (see Figure 1), with every miss penalized by a restart from point 1, three attempts given per test, with the best attempt scored.
In January 2019 the EG practices included squats with barbell and bench press exercises with the individual maximums fixed. The men’s and women’s maximums averaged 96±2kg and 69.5±3kg in the weightlifting and 81.5±3kg and 39.5±2kg in the bench press tests, respectively.
In February 2019, the sample was trained with the barbells weighing 40-50% of the maximums followed by the throw excellence trainings including three hampered shot-, mid- and long-distance throws in a row.
In March 2019, the sample trained squats with barbell, bench press and warm-up weightlifting practices with 50-60% maximal weights. The weightlifting practices were followed by the throw excellence trainings including five hampered shot-, mid- and long-distance alternating throws in a row.
Results and discussion. Given in Table hereunder are the EG and RG shooting progress test rates.
Table 1. Pre- versus post-experimental EG/ RG shooting test rates
Test 1, points
Post 3,5±0,3 (*)
Test 2, points
Post 20,3±0,8 (*)
Note: (*) р<0,05 for the matched pre- versus post-experimental group test data arrays
It should be mentioned that in the experimental period the EG was tested with some handwork coordination disorders associated with the compensatory fatigue. The muscular coordination/
control rehabilitation processes were faster in the men’s subgroups – taking on average 2.24±0.1min since the powerlifting practice completion moment till the stable successful shooting combinations of 4-6 accurate throws in a row in the series averaging 28.4±1.7 throws. The women’s subgroups’ rehabilitation time was tested to average 3.16±0.1min till the stable successful shooting was back in the series averaging 38.9±1.3 throws. The tests found the new powerlifting practices in the compensatory fatigue phase being beneficial for the shooting accuracy improvement purposes as verified by the EG progress versus RG.
Conclusion. In the new basketball shooting accuracy improving powerlifting technology testing experiment, the EG was tested with progress of 43% in the standing throw test, with the accurate shots tested to grow from 2.0 to 3.5 in the pre- versus post-experimental tests, respectively. The powerlifting practices apparently contributed to the technical progress in the EG versus no progress in the RG. The game situations mimicking tests found progress of 13% and 35% in the RG and EG, respectively; albeit the RG progress was largely due to the team leader’s contribution whilst in the EG virtually every player made progress for the experimental period. We believe that the new basketball shooting accuracy improving powerlifting training technology applied in the compensatory fatigue phase, in combination with the traditional training tools, appears to be highly beneficial for the shooting accuracy improvement trainings in modern basketball, although more detailed studies are recommended.
- Dementiev K.N., Volskiy V.V., Rogozhnikov M.A. Aerial 540° reverse hook kick in taekwondo: timing aspect. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2017, no. 11, pp. 75-76.
- Dementiev K.N., Pristav O.V. Technology of accelerated development of speed-strength qualities in cadets of railway academy at initial training stage. Uchenye zapiski un-ta im. P.F. Lesgafta, 2007, no. 5, pp. 34-38.
- Rogozhnikov M.A. Teaching young taekwondokas unsupported complex coordination technical actions. PhD diss.. St. Petersburg, 2016, 187 p.
- Rogozhnikov M.A. Explosive leg strength training for complex coordinated techniques in youth taekwondo. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2017, no. 11, pp. 60-61.
- Rogozhnikov M.A., Sergeeva A.G. Trampoline training tools to expand range of complex coordinated techniques in taekwondo. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2018, no.9, pp. 72-74.
- Izotov E.A. Ideomotor training in darts in context of correlation of quality of visualization and efficiency of mastering dart throwing technique. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2014, no. 2, pp. 16-19.
- Kuvanov V.A., Korostelev E.N., Zaytsev A.V. Management of muscle tone in sports wrestling. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2018, no. 4, pp. 57-59.
Corresponding author: email@example.com
Shooting accuracy in basketball is known to be best trained in the compensatory fatigue phase with the progressively growing general fatigue when the athlete is still able to cope with the game intensity for some time by the individual adjustments to the movement biomechanics.
Having analyzed the Saint Petersburg academic basketball game statistics available on the official International Basketball Federation FIBA website, we found the teams normally losing the matches when their leaders are injured or foul 5 times and removed from the field, with the other team members being unable to take the lead. We offer the shooting accuracy improving powerlifting tools based training technology applicable in the compensatory fatigue phase.
Sampled for the new model testing experiment were the Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering student players (n=20) of the both sexes split up into the Reference group and Experimental group of 10 people each with equal (5+5) gender shares.
The tests found the new powerlifting and weight application practices in compensatory fatigue phase being beneficial for the shooting accuracy improvement purposes.