Formation of mental actions in additional education system

Master student A.P. Mordanev1
PhD D.D. Kechkin1
PhD, Associate Professor T.A. Polyakova1
PhD, Associate Professor A.M. Tikhonov1
1Perm State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University, Perm

Keywords: advanced education system, method, technology, progress, intellectual performance models

Background. Presently the national education system offers, in addition to the compulsory general education system, a supplementary (advanced) education system. We believe that both of the educational systems may be highly efficient if their due synergy is secured in many aspects including the intellectual resource building ones – all the more that the intellectual aspect of the modern physical education service has been lately given a special priority [1] by the research community. It is only problematic that the attempts to comprehend the nature of intelligence based on some of its qualities and their descriptions normally end up by the extensive accumulated knowledgebase paradoxically coming to a negative result. We have analyzed the relevant psychological literature to interpret the concept of intelligence as the mental experience structuring system with the relevant thinking toolkit [2].

As things now stand, we have the knowledge sharing methods albeit the necessary thinking tools mastering models are still underdeveloped. We may call such model an education system, technology or method, but what first of all its conceptual basis needs to be formed. Educational system may be defined as the combination of interrelated educational elements. We would complement them by the following elements: meaning of the education service, its mission, contributors (teachers, students and families), content, methods, didactic and progress test tools, institutional forms, educational approach and expected outcomes. Didactic technology/ method may be interpreted as the ideally outlined educational system components established on a sound theoretical basis with the relevant facilities and timing requirements to achieve the system goals. Educational technology may be viewed as different from method in the sense that the latter applies not only the subject technique being mastered (i.e. a long jump technique) but also the trainee’s personality being developed with the relevant thinking tools including self-control, self-rating, correction, process planning and other relevant skills and qualities. We propose, therefore, to complement the purely physical and technical trainings by the athletic individuality progress tools to help the athlete effectively progress to be able to effectively apply the relevant physical education and sport system for certain missions. Based on the above concepts, we would define such educational system as the Physical Education and Sport Service Subject Progress Technology applicable by the general and advanced education systems.

Objective of the study was to provied a theoretical basis for the new intellectual resource building physical education and sport service model and test its benefits by an experiment.

Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were the 12-13 year old footballers (n=43) trained at Antaeus Youth Sports Center and split up into Experimental Group (EG, n=20) and Reference Group (RG, n=23). The RG was trained by the traditional system, i.e. from the motor sequence imaging (supported by demonstrations and descriptions) to basics trainings followed by an excellence training method designed and managed by the coach. The EG training was designed on a problem-solving basis as follows:

  • Articulate the problem for every athlete to realize it and prioritize the problem-solving goals, with a special attention to the physical training tools to facilitate the individual progress.
  • Master the relevant motor skills. It should be noted that most football players (including the high-class ones) are not always perfect in the unimpeded running techniques. This problem may be solved by a special training to help the trainee isolate the core elements in the movement sequence and efficiently master, control and manage them.
  • Identify the core (most efficient) elements. This training stage is geared to help the trainee (a) identify the problem; (b) find the core elements critical for progress of the target motor skills.
  • Execute these elements in an error-free manner. This training stage is geared to help the trainee (a) master a reflective thinking (with the sensations verbalizing) method; (b) teach the others to analyze the execution quality; (c) rate own execution by the relevant self-rating tools; and (d) be able to explain “why so” – i.e. support the progress by the theoretical thinking/ analyzing skills.
  • Master and excel the technical elements. This training stage is geared to help the trainee find on his own the key practices to progress in the motor skill and correct the errors.
  • Secure physical progress with an emphasis on the core physical qualities. This training stage is intended to help the trainee select the most efficient exercises for progress and achievements i.e. find the target muscle groups, identify these group building exercises; efficiently apply the most beneficial internal/ external workloads (scopes, intensities); and develop the individual training models.

Results and discussion. The experimental training helped the EG master own motor skills rating method. Thus the error rate in the self-rating component averaged 0.59 points in the EG versus 2.1 points in the RG. Running technique in the EG was tested to improve from 3.12 points to 4.22 points; and the football elements execution quality (complex test) was tested to grow in EG from 13.7 to 16.4 points (p <0.01) versus 13.4 to 14.8 points in the RG (p> 0.05). The EG progress in the running technique was verified by the 30/50m sprint and 7x50m ball control tests. Furthermore, the EG made significant progress, unlike the RG, in the physical fitness tests including the standing long jump and 30s maximum-speed prone push-ups tests. The EG progress was facilitated by achievements in the following thinking skills:

  • Physical progress self-rating skills. Thus the EG mastered the pre- and post-training HR self-testing by the Ruffier method for the HR variability and performance control and management purposes.
  • Own physicality rating skills, with most of the EG found able to correctly forecast own progress in the 7х50m ball control tests.
  • Training system design and management skills, to attain the target physical fitness level. Thus 100% of the EG was successful in own warm-up training practice design and efficiency rating.
  • Problem articulation, consulting with experts, analyses of the reference literature, with 1, 10 and 9 individuals in the EG found to be highly, medium and poorly proficient in this component, respectively.
  • Goal/ result attaining, with both the EG and RG tested with technical and physical progress for the study period.

Conclusion. The new new intellectual resource building physical education and sport service in the advanced training system was tested beneficial for the footballers/ physical and technical progress and the thinking toolkit building purposes.


  1. Bal'sevich V.K. Intellectual vector of man's physical culture (to the problem of development of physical education knowledge). Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 1991. NO.  7. pp  37-41.
  2. Kholodnaya M.A. Psychology of Intelligence: The Paradoxes of Research. 2nd ed., rev., sup.. St. Petersburg: Piter publ., 2002. 272 p.

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The philosophical foundations of the proposed by the authors educational technology for the development of mental actions of the physical education and sport subject are theories and concepts of Russian cosmism, dialectical materialist philosophy and dialectic logic, the theory of energy evolutionism, the concept of search activity. At the psychological level, the technology was developed on the basis of the general activity theory, while on the didactic level -on the principles of developing education by D.B. Elkonin and V.V. Davydov. At the objective level, the concept was based on the integration of physical and sociocultural apects in the physical training process, suggesting considering ways of physical activity as an integrator. At the physiological level, the technology relies on the activity physiology theory of N.A. Bernstein.

Objective of the study was to scientifically substantiate the technology for the development of the ways of mental actions of a subject of physical education and sports activity and to experimentally verify its effectiveness. subject to the study were 12-13 year-old athletes, doing sports in the youth center "Antei". The results of the study showed that the training process in the additional education system, designed based on the proposed technology, is effective in the physical and technical training of football players, and also successfully develops ways of their mental actions.