Youth physical education and sports: visions of future, problems and prospects

PhD, Associate Professor A.N. Yakovlev1
Dr. Hab., Professor E.P. Vrublevskiy2, 3
PhD, Associate Professor V.I. Stadnik1
A.A. Kravchenin1
Master M.A. Yakovleva4
Master student N.A. Glushenko5
1Polessky State University, Pinsk, Republic of Belarus
2Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, Gomel, Republic of Belarus
3Zelenogur University, Zelenaya Gora, Poland
4Smolensk State University, Smolensk
5Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok

Keywords: irrational, creativity, physical education and sports, character, youth, life meaning, life satisfaction, irrational mindsets.

Background. Ontogenetic process is known to have its logics with many of its aspects peaking in the adolescent 15–20 year period when the individual intellectual resource and mental experience is fast accumulated and shaped up within the frame of the inner worldview [9, 13, 14]. The ratios of the age-specific rational and irrational factors have been analyzed by many study reports, although the discussions are still going on due to the contradictions in the relevant fields of knowledge [7, 8]. It should be noted that analyses and typologies of the personal responsibility and professional identity [4-6, 8] generally depend on interpretations of “rational” and “irrational”.

This age group is highly sensitive to physical education and sports and many external factors of influence that affect the perceived personality value/ status. Many sports help the athlete develop perfect control of own body when mastering the sport-specific motor skills with individual psychological qualities being fully mobilized and progressing for success [11, 12, 10], with the team sports, for instance, with their game positions and highly competitive cyclic and acyclic climates, being particularly facilitative for the personality socializing agenda [1- 3]. Knowing the contradictions and challenges of the modern communities and educational institutions, it may be beneficial to analyze the rational and irrational in the age-specific individual and social domains.

Objective of the study was to analyze the psychological and educational aspects of the vision of future being formed in the junior physical education and sports process.

Methods and structure of the study. We sampled for the study 17–20 years old full-time sporting students (n=47) of Smolensk State University. Subject to the youth creativity survey were young male (n=18) and female (n=17) residents of Smolensk, plus the 15-16 years old school students attending team sports groups.

Results and discussion. The ratios of age-specific rational and irrational factors are still underexplored still the intellectual progresses and mental experiences are rather versatile and governed by the inner worldviews and motor skill sets in the formation process. We run the life-values tests [6] to analyze the life goals, life process and life success apprehensions, Self-locus of control, Life locus of control, and the general life meaning rates: see Table 1 hereunder.

Table 1. Life meaning rates of the 17–20 year-olds (n=47)

Low

Moderate

High

28% (n=13)

68% (n=32)

4% (n=2)

As demonstrated by the above, 4%, 68% and 28% of the sample was tested with the high, moderate and low life meaning rates. Given in Table 2 are the general life satisfaction rates indicative of the life interest, determination in pursuing the life goals and the degree of the expectations coming true. We tested the self-evaluations, general moods and life meaning.

Table 2. Life meaning rates of the 17–20-year-olds (n=47)

Low

Moderate

High

40% (n=19)

32% (n=15)

28% (n=13)

As demonstrated by the above, 28%, 32% and 40% of the sample was tested with the high, moderate and low general life satisfaction rates. Furthermore, we used the A. Ellis survey method [10] to rate the irrational mindsets. Thus, 81% of the sample was tested high on the catastrophic irrational mindsets scale; 77% with high self-commitment; and 43% with high others-commitment attitudes. 43% and 57% of the sample was tested high and moderate on the Self-evaluation and Thinking Rationality scale; and 24% and 75% high and moderate on the Frustration Tolerance scale of irrational mindsets, respectively, with the same proportion found on the others-commitment scale. 23% was tested moderate on the self-commitment irrational mindsets scale; and 19% moderate on the catastrophic irrational mindsets scale; with only 2% of the sample tested low on the Frustration Tolerance scale.

We found a moderate correlation (r= 0.362) between the catastrophic irrational mindsets and moderate life satisfaction rates. Young people tested high on catastrophic irrational mindsets scale tend to perceive every negative event as something terrible and painful – and no wonder that the life satisfaction rates in this group are low too. Of special interest was also the expressed correlation (r = 0.692) between the frustration tolerance and life satisfaction rates, with the Frustration Tolerance rate being indicative of the individual stress tolerance and the ability to cope with frustrating influences. We also found a moderate correlation between the frustration tolerance and life meaning rates (r=0.489); and a high correlation between the self-evaluation and thinking rationality and life satisfaction rates (r=0.746).

The national education community gives a special attention to creativity as one of the key personality qualities [14, 15]. Our study showed that dominating by 10th school grade is a hyperthymic accentuation type (37%); 20% are tested with an emotive type, and 11% with a demonstrative type. Affectively-exalted and cyclothymic personality types were tested in 8% of the sample; inhibited and excitable in 6%, and pedantic type in 4% of the sample. On the whole, 17%, 57% and 26% of the sample were tested high, moderate and low on the creativity scale.

The team-sporting 10-graders were tested with a correlation between the demonstrative accentuation type and thinking fluency (r=0.406), and between the dysthymic accentuation type and thinking fluency (r=0.345). A moderate correlation between the pedantic accentuation type and thinking versatility (r = 0.363) shows that the higher is this accentuation type the higher is the thinking versatility rate. And the more expressed is the cyclotymic accentuation type the higher is the thinking originality and creativity rate (r=0.434).

Conclusion. The substantial range of the youth cultural values was tested dominated by the age-specific priorities and agendas, with 4%, 68% and 28% of the sporting sample tested high, moderate and low on the life meaning scale. At the same time, 28%, 32% and 40% of the sample were tested high, moderate and low on the life satisfaction scale.

The team-sporting 10-graders were mostly tested (34%) with hyperthymic accentuation type, 23% with cyclothymic accentuation type, 20% ranked with the emotional type; 8% with the demonstrative type; 6% with the inhibited and affectively exalted type; and 3% with the excitable type. Furthermore 91% of the team-sporting group was tested with high thinking fluency; 83% with high thinking versatility; and 26% with high thinking originality. The study ranked 6% of the sample high on the thinking rationality scale. Rated moderate on the thinking originality scale was 63% of the sample; 57% was rated moderate on the rational thinking scale; 17% moderate on the thinking flexibility scale, and 9% moderate on the thinking fluency scale. At the same time, 37% was tested low on the thinking rationality scale, and 11% low on the thinking originality scale.

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Corresponding author: vru-evg@yandex.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to identify psychological and pedagogical features of perception of the future in adolescents during their physical education and sports activities.

Methods and structure of the study. The study involved the 17-20 year-old full-time students of Smolensk Academy of Professional Education (Regional State Budget Professional Educational Institution SmolAPE), who were engaged in various sports (n=47). Creativity as a personality trait was tested in the 15-16 year-old male (n=18) and female (n=17) schoolchildren (tenth-graders) of Smolensk, who were engaged in team sports.

Results of the study. We determined the overall level of meaning in life, total life satisfaction and irrational attitudes of university students, as well as the correlation between the scales of irrational attitudes and levels of life satisfaction index.

Conclusion. The study showed that in the 10th grade, it was the hyperthymic type of accentuation of personality traits that prevailed in the students (34%). 23% of sporting school graduates belonged to the cyclothymic type of accentuation, and 20% - to the emotive one.