Special physical fitness test model for young qazaq Kuresi Wrestlers

Dr. Hab., Professor F.I. Sobyanin1
Postgraduate student A.S. Rakhmetzhanov1
Postgraduate student S.A. Makashev1
Associate Professor K.I. Ismagulov2
1Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod
2West Kazakhstan Innovative Technologies University, Uralsk
3Makhambet Utemisov West Kazakhstan State University, Uralsk

Keywords: Qazaq Kuresi wrestling sport, Kazakhstan, national wrestling sport, special physical fitness (SPF), progress tests

The study was run at Belgorod State National Research University (Russia), West Kazakhstan Innovative Technologies University and West Kazakhstan State University (Uralsk) in 2016-19.

Background. For the last few years the national Qazaq Kuresi wrestling sport has been increasingly popular in the Republic of Kazakhstan as demonstrated, among other things, by the major international Qazaq Kuresi competitions including world championships. The national sport community reports a growing interest in the Qazaq Kuresi theory and practice, rules of competitions, their traditions and organization requirements [1-3], although many sport enthusiasts feel a growing need for the special physical fitness training models for junior Qazaq Kuresi groups. This was the reason for us to develop and offer a special physical fitness training model for the 14-16 year-old Qazaq Kuresi wrestlers that may be of theoretical and practical interest for the sport community.

Objective of the study was to analyze benefits of the new special physical fitness training model for the 14-16 year-olds in the national Qazaq Kuresi wrestling sport.

Results and discussion. Our analysis of the relevant study reports showed that the Qazaq Kuresi theory and practice is still in need of the sport-specific special physical fitness training methods and tools, with a few reports on the issue being rather fragmental [1, 3, 4] despite the fact that the first- to seven-year Qazaq Kuresi training tradition assigns about 20% of the training time to the special physical fitness excellence practices, with the percentage declining by the 7th year in contradiction with the common athletic progress/ technical excellence logics [4].

Practical and theoretical Qazaq Kuresi experience accumulated by the Makhambet Utemisov West Kazakhstan State University’s Qazaq Kuresi groups made it possible to develop highly efficient technical and tactical training toolkit as verified by the competitive accomplishments of the MUWKAU’s Qazaq Kuresi team. The progress was analyzed by the J.S. Bayshulakov’s study report [4]. It was demonstrated that a few key holds trained by the team were applied more often than the others in 5 Qazaq Kuresi wrestling events of the regional and republican level. Later on these technical and tactical developments were used for the special physical fitness progress test sets by the sport groups. Listed in Table 1 hereunder are the Qazaq Kuresi holds classified by the competitive incidence rates, with 3 and 3 holds rated on parametric and nonparametric scales, respectively.

Table 1. Rated technical/ tactical holds of the junior Qazaq Kuresi wrestlers

 

Hold

Test standard

Incidence rate

1

Dummy catch throw

30-second maximum

2

2

Dummy throw over thigh

30-second maximum

5

3

Dummy heel trip

30-second maximum

3

4

Imbalance throw

3 points

1

5

Heel trip and throw

3 points

4

6

Hook throw

3 points

6

The test standards were designed to fairly and comprehensively rate the technical execution and physical qualities. The core idea of the training model and progress testing experiment was to prioritize the most efficient and successful competitive toolkit in the age-specific Qazaq Kuresi trainings. The holds mastering and excelling process was intended to first master the simplest holds and then more complicated as dictated by the basic training process logics. The trainings were focused on the hold-specific muscle groups, plus the key physical qualities excelling practices for success in the Qazaq Kuresi competitions including dynamic strength, speed, coordination qualities and strength endurance.

The pre-experimental special physical fitness tests found no meaningful differences between Experimental Group (EG, n=10) and Reference Group (RG, n=10). It should be noted that the tests helped detect the execution drawbacks in both groups, particularly in the hooks, catches and heel trips. Then, in the one-year experimental training cycle, the EG was tested once in two months to rate progress in the special physical fitness aspects and make corrections when necessary; and the RG trainings were traditional, with the progress tested prior to, in the middle and after the yearly training cycle.

The pre- versus post-experimental tests found meaningfully higher progress of the EG in every standard test versus the RG: see an excerpt from the final report in Table 2. The EG progress was facilitated by the systemic monthly special physical fitness progress tests, monitoring and corrective practices geared to excel the technical execution and core physical qualities for the technical/ technical growth.

Table 2. Some of the post-experimental test rates of the EG and RG

 

Test hold

RG average, (n=10) М±m

 

EG average, (n=10) М±m

 

t emp.

р

1

Dummy catch throw, 30-second maximum

7,31±0,16

7,65±0,16

2,5

<0,05

2

Dummy throw over thigh, 30-second maximum

7,05±0,19

7,43±0,32

2,5

<0,05

3

Dummy heel trip, 30-second maximum

7,00±0,19

7,27±0,23

2,5

<0,05

Conclusion. Modern Qazaq Kuresi wrestling sport community gives a special priority to the sport-specific special physical fitness trainings. Like any other wrestling discipline, the Qazaq Kuresi sport develops a set of the most successful competitive techniques and tactics tested in practical competitions. The special physical fitness trainings must be complemented by the special physical fitness progress test systems with ratings of the most successful holds and their executions that require excellent sport-specific physical qualities. The new special physical fitness training model for the 14-16 year-old Qazaq Kuresi wrestlers of our design was tested beneficial as verified by the EG versus RG progress tests. The special physical fitness training and progress test model may be recommended for application as supplementary to the regular overall physical fitness tests run 3 times in an annual training cycle plus at least 3 times in the precompetitive training cycles for the top-ranking events.

References

  1. Bayshulakov Zh.S. Volume and sequence of training in technical activities specializing in Qazaq Kuresi. Teoriya i metodika fiz. kultury. 2007. no.  1. pp. 144­148.
  2. Bayshulakov Zh.S., Shepetyuk N.M. Qazaq Kuresi ­ physical education tool for students. al­Farabi Kazakh National University and educational strategy of new Kazakhstan: Proc. XXXVIII res.­-method. conf. PPS KazNU. Almaty, 2008. pp. 38­41.
  3. Bayshulakov Zh.S. Optimization of training process and increasing role of technical and tactical training in Qazaq Kuresi in view of current trends in development of sports. PhD diss.. Almaty, 2010.210 p.
  4. Otenov N.O., Mukhiddinov E.M., Tulenbaev K.M. On methodology of junior Qazaq Kuresi wrestler training Kazakh. Current problems and prospects for development of sports reserve training system on the verge of the XXI Olympic Games in Rio. Proc. nat. res.­pract. conf. with int. part.. Kazan: VRSAPEST publ. , 2015. pp.  298­299.

Corresponding author: nikulin_i@bsu.edu.ru

Abstract

The article is devoted to the special physical fitness rating method in application to athletes involved in the Kazakh national wrestling sport - Qazaq Kuresi. We assessed a set of technical and tactical actions used in Qazaq Kuresi that are the most effective during competitive performance.

The analysis of special literature and pedagogical observation data revealed a high frequency of application of the selected complex of Qazaq Kuresi techniques. The following technical and tactical actions were considered when assessing special physical fitness of the young wrestlers: flying roll, hip roll, reap, leg sweep (front and back), floating drop, trip throw.

The data obtained can be used in pedagogical control over young Qazaq Kuresi wrestlers’ physical fitness rates.

The sequence of mastering and improving the combat maneuvers was built in such a way as to first master more technically simple maneuvers, and only then - more technically complex ones (in accordance with the basic didactic principles). At the same time, during trainings, physical activity was focused on the muscle groups involved in the performance of the combat maneuvers. Moreover, sets of exercises were used to develop those skills that are most important in Qazaq Kuresi: dynamic strength, speed, coordination abilities, strength endurance.

Results of the study and conclusions. The study showed that the test rates were significantly higher in the Experimental Group than in the Control one. The following technical and tactical actions were selected from the total number of throws (rolls) to assess special physical fitness of the young wrestlers: flying roll, hip roll, reap, leg sweep (front and back), floating drop, trip throw.