Benefits of kyokushinkai karate for business school students

D.V. Artamonov1
E.B. Osipova1
Associate Professor Y.O. Averyasova1
PhD, Associate Professor T.N. Shutova1
PhD E.A. Lubyshev1
1Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow

Keywords: Kyokushinkai karate, business school students, sporting culture, physical fitness, stress tolerance.

Background. Captains School of Business was founded in 2016 with support from the Charitable Foundation for Business Education. The business training program is geared to contribute to the governmental efforts to create 25 million new jobs for six years. However, the academic health system reports the students’ health standards sagging for the last few years, and this is the reason why a special priority in the training program is given to the sporting culture and physical education of the new business elite to secure the high performance, physical fitness, stress tolerance and good volitional qualities for success in business, including sport projects [2, 3, 9].

Objective of the study was to test benefits of a Kyokushinkai karate training model for business students.

Methods and structure of the study. The model testing experiment was run in September 2018 through March 2019 at Plekhanov Russian University of Economics and its branch establishments. Sampled for the study were the 18-19 year-old students (n=174) from the Captains School of Business for the 70-80 hour physical activity. The students’ functionality and stress tolerance was tested by a computerized Esteck System [1].

The basics of Kyokushinkai karate knowledge included the Kyokushinkai karate ethics and spiritual heritage, meaning of the kyu belt colors, semantics of the movement techniques, Kyokushinkai karate terminology in Japanese, meanings of Kyokushinkai karate meditation and rituals, Kyokushinkai karate history, health knowledge basics, physical fitness levels, Kyokushinkai-karate-culture-specific behavioral models, stress tolerance, Kyokushinkai karate practices for physical progress, “bunkai” kata elements, “ibuki” and “Nagare” respiration elements etc. [5, 4, 6, 7]. Trainees were expected to master the Kyokushinkai karate competitive culture, self-discipline, Kyokushinkai karate sporting lifestyle and values, and make progress in the Kyokushinkai karate knowledge and skills.

Kyokushinkai karate progress tests were run in the Kyokushinkai karate training process after 2-hour daily trainings and included: 1) on-site punching technique test (Morote-tsuki Jodan, Morote-tsuki Chudan, Morote-tsuki Gedan, Seiken-tsuki Jodan, seiken-tsuki chudan, seiken-tsuki gedan): 100 punches; 2) hand blocks (Jodan-uke, soto-uke, uchu uke, gedan barai): 100 blocks; 3) on-site kicks (hiza-geri, kin-geri, mavashi-gerigedan, mavashi-gerichudan): 100 kicks; 4) footwork and handwork on the move in zenkutsu-dachi stance: 60 triple-steps; 5) handwork technique in a combat stance (ago-teach, shito-tsuki, kage-learn): 100 reps; 6) footwork in a combat stance (hiza-geri, kin-geri, mavashi-gerigedan, mavashi-gerichudan): 100 reps; 7) kata ( “kihon kata ichi” combat complex) execution: 20 reps; 8) kata “takiekusonoichi” execution: 20 reps. Complexes (kihon-kata) and basic techniques were tested both on site and on the move; with the on-site complexes including exits and returns to Migi Santin Dati (with the exception of 10 kyu techniques in fudo dati); and with movements in zenkutsu-dati including triple (counted and uncounted) steps.

Every training session was followed by Burpees Test 1: starting position to the squats –squat thrust – jump with clap in front of the chest – back to the squat – jump with the knees to the chest. The test included three 30-second reps, with the execution quality rated by an expert. And Test 2 was run as follows: from the left-side combat stance, successive left/right punches (seiken-tsuki) – Gerigedan mavashi punch – jumping change in the leg position – the same combination. This was a non-stop 2-minute test, with the execution technique, strength and combination speed rated by an expert.

Results and discussion. In the post-experimental Test 1, the trainees made 13.7 reps on average (versus normal 12 reps), with insignificant differences between the gender groups and university branches. In the post-experimental Test 2, the trainees made 12.3 reps (versus normal 10 reps) with insignificant differences between the gender groups. The post- versus pre-experimental tests found the physical fitness to grow virtually 2 times, with a significant progress of the gender groups in the three basic exercises. It should be mentioned that the women’s group progress was almost as high as in the men’s group.

Table 1. Physical fitness test data

Tests

Gr

±σ

Мо

±σ

Мо

Prone push-ups, reps

M

17,1±5,05

15,0

33,2±7,3*

30,0

W

17,7±3,8

15,0

35,2±6,09*

38,0

30s prone sits, reps

M

23,9±6,9

25,0

43,9±10,05*

46,0

W

24,4±4,99

25,0

45,8±7,2*

46,0

30s squats, reps

M

17,1±3,7

15,0

33,7±7,9*

33,0

 

17,0±2,7

D 15,0

33,9±5,9*

33,0

Note:  – mean arithmetic values, σ – mean square value, Мо – mode

The study found insignificant differences of the university department groups – that may be indicative of the universality of the Kyokushinkai karate training model and its adequacy for the physical progress purposes. Given on Figures 1, 2 hereunder are the gender group progresses in the prone push-ups test.

Figure 1. Pre- versus post-experimental prone push-ups test rates, reps

Figure 2. Pre- versus post-experimental prone push-ups test rates, reps

The stress tolerance rate was tested to improve in both of the gender groups – 166 to 134 points and 164 to 128.5 points in the women’s and men’s groups, respectively, to verify the practical benefits of the Kyokushinkai karate trainings for the academic stress mitigation purposes. The integrated functionality test rates were found to improve 89.4 to 91.5 points and 86.7 to 93.4 points in the women’s and men’s groups, respectively: see Table 2. Furthermore, the regular Kyokushinkai karate practices were found to improve the heart rates for 7 months of the practices. The Ruffier tests showed progresses of 13.09 to 10.2 points and 13.6 to 9.9 points in the women’s and men’s groups, respectively. As a result the cardiac muscle response to physical work was tested to near the norm in the men’s group and virtually match the norm in the women’s group: see Table 2.

Table 2. Pre- versus post-experimental gender-specific functionality test rates

Functionality test rates

Pre-experimental

Post-experimental

women

men

women

men

Integral functionality test rate yielded by Esteck System on a 100-point scale

89,4±10,4

86,7±8,0

95,1±5,9

93,4±6,8

Stress tolerance rate versus the  50-200 point norm, yielded by Esteck System

166±20,3

164,2±38,1

134,4±39,0*

128,5±31,2*

Heart rate, bmp

82,511,6

80,59,8

80,6±9,1

78,58,3

Ruffier index, points on average

13,0±2,4

13,6±3,1

9,6±3,0*

9,0±2,8*

Body mass index, points

21,22,8

22,92,5

20,4±2,0

21,6±2,4

 

Conclusion. The study showed benefits of Kyokushinkai karate training model offered with other elective disciplines in the academic education curricula for business students as verified by the sample progress in the physical and mental fitness and sporting culture. As a result of the Kyokushinkai karate course, the students came up with their sporting projects to encourage inter-branch Kyokushinkai karate competitions at the university.

References

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  2. Andryushchenko L.B., Loseva I.V. Technology of formation of competency for cultivating physical culture in students as a factor health protection. MAE of RF, RSAU– K.A. Timiryazev AA. M., 2009.
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Corresponding author: artasound@mail.ru

Abstract

Captains School of Business was founded in 2016 with support from the Charitable Foundation for Business Education. The business training program is geared to contribute to the governmental efforts to create 25 million new jobs for six years. However, the academic health system reports the students’ health standards sagging for the last few years, and this is the reason why a special priority in the training program is given to the sporting culture and PE of the new business elite to secure the high performance, physical fitness, stress tolerance and good volitional qualities for success in business, including sport projects. Objective of the study was to test benefits of Kyokushinkai karate training model for future entrepreneurs. The model testing experiment was run in September 2018 through March 2019 at Plekhanov Russian University of Economics and its branch establishments. Sampled for the study were the 18-19 year-old students (n=174) from the Captains School of Business for the 70-80 hour physical activity. The students’ functionality and stress tolerance was tested by computerized Esteck System. The students were trained to master the Kyokushinkai karate basics including its ethical and spiritual pillars; colors of the kyu belts; technical terms and meanings in Japanese; meditation basics and rituals; history, health protection basics, physical fitness standards, culture, behavioral standards, stress tolerance, special practices to develop physical qualities; elements of Bunkai Kata, Ibuki and Nagare respiration practices etc. Students also mastered the basics of competitive culture, self-discipline, sporting lifestyle, sporting values etc. to form a basis for progress in karate culture, knowledge and skills.

The study showed benefits of Kyokushinkai karate training model offered with other elective disciplines in the academic education curricula as verified by the sample progress in the physical and mental fitness and sporting culture.