Benefits of court control skills excelling training machine for badminton

Dr. Hab., Professor G.V. Barchukova1
V.S. Brusovankin1
T.M. Migalina2
1Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow
2Mytishchi branch of Bauman Moscow State Technical University (National Research University) Mytishchi, Moscow Region

Keywords: badminton players, court control skills, training machine, movement coordination, energy cost efficiency improvements, injury prevention

Background. Footwork (court control skills) excelling trainings are ranked among the key special physical training elements by the modern badminton training systems [1, 4, 5], with the training goals attained by multiple exercises developed and applied by the national and foreign sport schools [2,3]. Specific physical progresses of the badminton players, however, are often limited by shortage of good training equipment and training systems. The key requirements to the training equipment are the convenience/ user friendliness, functionality, adaptability to the body weight, age, anthropometrics, actual skill/ fitness levels and safety standards to minimize the risks of injuries.

Objective of the study was to develop and analyze benefits of a footwork excelling training machine applicable in the modern badminton training systems.

Results and discussion. We designed the new training machine to improve the movement coordination and spur up the muscular system development as required by the badminton skill sets including the footwork, forehand/ backhand/ overhead attacks, defenses etc. The training system makes it possible to excel the court control techniques, postural controls and movement coordination qualities to minimize the energy costs, harmonize the motor skills and footwork and effectively prevent injuries.

The new training machine may be described as a extensible rectangular structure made of the following three key elements: H-shaped central part plus two rectangular U-shaped staples, sliding onto the central part and making the whole structure retractable/ adjustable in length. Presented on Figure hereunder are the H-shaped central part 1, two U-shaped brackets 2 fixed to the central part by fasteners 3, changeable weights 4 fixed on the central axis by fasteners 5, grips 6 for the athlete’s hands and protective screen 7.

Figure 1. Footwork excellence training machine for badminton

The training system is adjustable by the shaping and weighting options to the individual anthropometrics, strength, motor skills, training stage and specific training goals. The frame of the system is extensible to fit the individual anthropometrics by the U-shaped brackets being moved along the frame and fixed by pins in the relevant openings, with the step of 4cm.

The relative movement is secured by the following equation: dext.1 <dint.2 (external diameter 1 of the frame and internal diameter of the side tubes). Handles in this version of the training machine may be made 60 to 84 cm long as required by the individual anthropometrics, with the system weighted by the optional weights of 1, 2, 4, 5, 8 and 10 kg.

Attached to the main structure is a protective shield that may be applied to train thrusts, secure tight contact of the foot and prevent falls or injuries from the heavy part of the platform. The screen positioning angle is adjustable and fixable in the desired point, and the central cutout allows the whole platform being folded for storage or some specific injury-free applications.

The central and side parts of the frame are made of welded sized duralumin pipes; the fixable weights are made of stainless steel; the grips of soft plastic or foam rubber; and the protective shield of a heavy-duty plastic. The materials were selected to minimize the weight of the basic structure to the extent convenient for the underage athletes. The stainless removable weights are compact enough, and the heavy-duty plastic parts are shaped so as to prevent potential injuries.

Special physical training component (assisted by the training simulator) in the total badminton training system compliant to the valid theoretical and practical sport school training [1] program and schedule is given in Table 1 hereunder.

Table 1. Badminton training system classified by the training stages and classes

Training stages/ age groups

Training classes

TPT

SPT

Technical

Tactical

Combined

HS, 7-9 year-olds

65

4

29

2

-

СО, 10-17 year-olds

44

8

42

6

-

BT, year 1

33

16

27

14

10

BT, years 2, 3

32

16

27

14

11

AT, years 1, 2

21

19

28

16

16

AT, year 3

18

20

25

18

19

SE, year 1

15

18

32

15

20

SE, year 2

14

18

27

17

24

SE, year 3

12

15

23

17

33

EG

12

15

23

17

33

 

Note: TPT traditional physical training; SPT special physical training; HS health sport groups; BT beginner training groups; AT advanced training groups; SE sport excellence groups, EG elite groups

As demonstrated by Table 1, TPT varies from 4% to 20% of the total training work, with the share growing with the age and skill level. The above court control skills excelling training machine may be used to save time and improve efficiency of the training process as required by the training stages, goals and classes. In the training machine application, the footwork training exercises may be classified as follows:

– By the movement types into the jumping, thrusting (with one foot fixed), stepping and running elements; and

– By the court zones into the front, middle and back zones (FZ, MZ and BZ).

Given in Table 2 hereunder is the recommended training schedule for the training machine applications.

Table 1. Recommended training schedule for the training machine applications, hours

Training machine application

Training year

1

2

3

4

5

Time, h

 

10

 

18

 

25

 

30

 

32

 

Any movement of a badminton player shall start from and return to the court center (CC), with the standard court control footwork elements given in Table 3.

Table 3. Standard court control footwork elements: training practices classified by the court zones

Task

Court zone

Front zone, FZ

Middle zone, MZ

Back zone, BZ

Footwork element

Controlled stride, stroke-mimicking thrust and back to the CC

Jump with a stroke-mimicking thrust and back to the CC

Controlled stride, stroke-mimicking thrust and run to the CC

 

Specific training elements and court-control sequences mastered using the training machine will depend on the player’s game role and skill level. Single or universal player (equally skillful in every game event) is recommended training the court control footwork in every court zone; couples shall train mostly the MZ and BZ control elements, with the male partners of the mixed couples making an emphasis on the MZ/ BZ and female partners on the FZ/ MZ control skills. Given in Table 4 hereunder are the guiding shares (%) of the training machine assisted work by the court zones.

Table 4. Guiding shares of the training machine assisted work by the court zones, %

Game role

FZ

MZ

BZ

Single/ universal player

32

36

32

Couple

25

40

35

Male partner, mixed couple

20

35

45

Female partner, mixed couple

40

40

20

 

The relatively higher MZ training scope is due to the fact that it is the court center (CC) zone where every movement starts from and finishes in. When some badminton player specializes in two classes (single + couple; single + mixed; couple + mixed), weighted averages of the relevant lines are recommended.

Conclusion. The court control skills excelling training machine customizable to the players’ anthropometrics, age, skills, court zones and game roles was tested beneficial as verified by the sample progress in the tests.

References

  1. Barchukova G.V. Theory and methodology of selected sport (badminton): work program of the discipline: training direction 034300.62: training profile “Sports training”. M.: RSUPESYT publ., 2011.
  2. Zhbankov O.V. Special physical training in badminton. M.: BMSTU publ., 1997.
  3. Migalina T.MPhysical training in badminton. Teaching aid. M.: MSUL publ., 2010.
  4. Turmanidze V.G. Badminton teahcing methods for teachers in general education institutions, grades 5-11. Study guide. National Badminton Federation of Russia, 2016.
  5. Turmanidze V.G., Kharchenko L.V., Antropov A.M. Physical education. Badminton. Grades 5-11. Work program for teachers of educational institutions. M.: Voennoe izdatelstvo, 2012.

Corresponding author: galla573@rambler.ru

Abstract

Footwork (court control skills) excellence trainings are ranked among the key special physical training elements by the modern badminton training systems, with the training goals attained by multiple exercises developed and applied by the national and foreign sport schools. The study analyzes benefits of the footwork excelling training machine for badminton training systems; overviews the training machine of the authors’ design to excel the movement coordination qualities and physical progress in every court control element i.e. fast movements, thrusts, attacks and defenses with both sides of the racket; and describes the training machine applications customizable to the age, experience, skills, field zone and game role of every athlete. The court control skills excelling training machine customizable to the players’ anthropometrics, age, skills, core court zones and game roles was tested beneficial as verified by the sample progress in the tests.