Dr.Hab., Professor N.I. Sinyavsky1
PhD, Associate Professor A.V. Fursov1
PhD, Associate Professor V.Yu. Losev2
PhD, Associate Professor V.V. Apokin2
Postgraduate O.I. Mikhel1
1Surgut State Pedagogical University, Surgut
2Surgut State University, Surgut
Keywords: 9-10 year-olds’ attitudes, GTO Complex, physical fitness, practical skills.
Background. GTO Complex forms a basis for the national physical education program as its test system sets standards for the tests of physical qualities, motor skills and capacities and offers recommendations on how the age-specific weekly physical activity shall be designed. Practical tests show the children’s physical standards being still largely poor, with normally only a few percent able to qualify for the Class III/IV badges, particularly in the special skill tests including the pneumatic rifle shooting, swimming, long throwing, skiing tests and tourist skills tests in trekking tours [1-5, 8]. These drawbacks may be addressed by special physical education classes and off-class models to help the children qualify for the GTO badges.
Objective of the study was to survey the 9-10 year-olds’ attitudes to the school physical education lessons, self-reliant off-class physical education and sport service and GTO Complex tests.
Methods and structure of the study. We run a questionnaire survey of the 9-10 year-olds’ attitudes to the school physical education lessons, self-reliant off-class physical education and sport service and GTO Complex tests with a special attention to the practical throwing, swimming and shooting skill trainings and fitness. Sampled for the questionnaire survey in November through December 2018 were the 3-4-grade students (n=259, 50.6% male and 49.4% female) of Secondary Schools # 32, 44 and 46 in Surgut.
Results and discussion. In our previous survey of the potential GTO Class II qualifiers, we sampled 1,296 boys and 1,258 girls, with only 242 boys and 264 girls (18.7% and 21%, respectively) reportedly succeeded in the tests . To find reasons for the poor physical fitness of the potential GTO Complex test qualifiers, we run a questionnaire survey to explore the ways to improve the 9-10 year-olds’ motivations for habitual physical education and sports practices. The surveyed sample was 59.8% sporting (attending different sport groups at the CYSS) and 40.2% unsporting, with only one of four reportedly having a physical education and sport service at school; and 78% and 22% reported practicing and non-practicing on a self-reliant basis, respectively. On the whole, the age group was found largely disinterested in physical education and sports practices believing in their impracticality for their future socializing and wellbeing.
The question on whether or not they know the test standards for their age group was responded positively and negatively by 52.1% and 47.9%, respectively. The other survey data showed about 50% of the sample being unmotivated both for the GTO Complex trainings/ tests and for physical education and sports practices and healthy lifestyle on the whole.
Figure 1. Potential GTO Class II qualifiers: questionnaire survey data
It should be mentioned that since 2016 the national educational system gives a special priority to the GTO Complex trainings and tests, with the standard school class/ off-class physical education and sports service system being redesigned in this context.
The survey found only 45.6% reportedly attempted to pass the GTO Complex tests and 54.4% dodged them. On the whole, the age group was tested with dominating positive attitudes to the GTO Complex tests albeit mostly hesitant to pass the tests as they feel physically unfit for them. Therefore, only 8.9%, 10% and 3.5% of the sample reported successes in qualifying for the GTO Complex Gold, Silver and Bronze badges, respectively; and 77.6% reportedly failed or dodged the tests. Many children reported avoiding the tests due to the fairs of failures that may discourage their further physical progress.
Figure 2. Reported successes in the GTO Complex tests
Particularly challenging for many were the special skills tests in the GTO Complex including the swimming, shooting, long throwing, skiing and trekking tests. Therefore, it is recommended to give special priority to these tests in the 9-10 year olds’ trainings as they are obligatory in the next Class of the GTO Complex system. For this age group, the swimming tests are still optional, and this may be the reason why 87.6% and 12.4% reported being unduly trained for and not having basic swimming skills, respectively. Only 506 people of 2,554 potential Class II qualifiers succeeded in the practical swimming tests.
The GTO Complex Class III tests include a shooting test. The questionnaire survey found 44% and 56% of the sample being reportedly fit and unfit for shooting, respectively. It should be emphasized in this context that no shooting classes are offered to the children at this juncture. Their demand for the shooting practices may be met by an off-class health physical education and sport services including shootings for the 3-11 grade students.
A special role in the physical activation initiatives may be played by the school physical education and sport service driven by the track and field sports basics. This is the reason why the first five (school age) Classes of the GTO Complex tests are dominated by the track and field sport elements including combined events, running, standing/ high jumping and throwing tests. The survey found, however, only 52.9% being reportedly trained and 47.1% untrained to throw in their school physical education classes; thus for many these tests are technically and/or physically challenging.
Trekking tours to test the practical hiking skills are ranked among the most interesting and informative GTO Complex Class III+ tests as they test both the physical fitness in many aspects and the life safety related knowledge and skills . 23.2% and 76.8% of the sample reported having and non-having, respectively, a tourist skills training service in the school physical education classes. The finding confirms the need for the special class/ off-class tourist skills training service and progress tests.
Furthermore, only 328 children of 2,554 potential Class II qualifiers opted for the skiing tests – probably due to the tests being highly endurance-intensive, and this physical quality is still underdeveloped in the age group – albeit 70.3% of the sample reported having ski trainings in the school physical education classes.
Conclusion. The survey found only 40% of the sample committed for the school physical education service. The efforts to train the school student population for the GTO Complex tests need to be supported by new class/ off-class physical education models and tools, with a special emphasis on the off-class formats that offer certain freedom being unlimited in time, and with the training process being widely customizable to the individual needs and interests of the students within the actual service conditions at schools.
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Corresponding author: email@example.com
Presently the national educational system reports serious problems the students face in the pneumatic rifle shooting, long throws, ski racing and trekking skills tests. We run a questionnaire survey of the 9-10 year-olds’ attitudes to the school physical education lessons, self-reliant off-class physical education and sport service and GTO Complex tests with a special attention to the practical throwing, swimming and shooting skills. Sampled for the questionnaire survey in November through December 2018 were the 3-4-grade students (n=259, 50.6% male and 49.4% female) of Secondary Schools # 32, 44 and 46 in Surgut. The survey found only 40% of the sample committed for the school physical education service. The efforts to train the school student population for the GTO Complex tests need to be supported by new class and off-class physical education models and tools, with a special emphasis on the off-class formats that offer certain freedom being unlimited in time, and with the training process being widely customizable to the individual needs and interests of the students within the actual service conditions at schools.