Training models customized to physical capacities and health issues of 10-14 year old girls

PhD, Associate Professor S.N. Blinkov1
Dr.Biol., Professor S.P. Levushkin2
Applicant O.E. Buvashkin2
1Samara State Agricultural University, Samara
2Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow

Keywords: schoolgirls’ health, body build types, physical trainings, physical performance, physical qualities.

Background. Customized and efficient physical education is indispensable for the children’s and adolescents’ health protection and improvement agenda, with the modern school physical education models giving a special priority to the individualized/ body-build-specific training tools [2, 3, 5].
Objective of the study was to analyze benefits of the training models customizable to the phy-sique, muscular fitness and health issues of the 10-14-year-old girls grouped by their body types.
Method and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were the 10-14 year old clinically healthy female students (n=158, grade 5-8) classified with the main health group and further grouped by the body types as follows: adynamic-thoracic; masculine and digestive groups. The sample was further split up into 9 skill-specific experimental subgroups with the special priorities to the endurance, speed-strength and the all-round physicality building trainings as follows: (1) endurance adynamic-thoracic; 2) speed-strength adynamic-thoracic; (3) all-round adynamic- thoracic; (4) endurance masculine; (5) speed-strength masculine; (6) all-round masculine; (7) endurance digestive; (8) speed-strength digestive; and (9) all-round digestive groups.
Benefits of the experimental training models were tested for each of the above 9 subgroups. Giv-en in Table 1 hereunder are the group-specific physical training system designs.

Table 1. Group-specific physical training systems

Priority physical qualities

Group

Speed-strength

Endurance

All-round

Physical training elements, %

Endurance

20

60

30

Speed-strength

60

20

30

Agility, speed, strength, flexibility

20

20

40

The group physical trainings were run within the regular Physical Education course, with the 45-min sessions three times a week, 96 sessions in total for every EG. The group trainings were run on a sequential, simultaneous or circular basis. The groups were tested by the following tests: body build typing [6]; performance tests PWC170 [1]; heart rate debt accumulation index (HRDAI) [4]; health indexing; wrist dynamometry; deadlift test; plus the physical qualities rating 30m sprint; 3x10m shuttle sprint; standing long jump; 1000m race; forward lean; pull-ups on a horizontal bar; recumbent-to-sitting; and the prone push-ups tests.
Results and discussion. Given on Figure 1 is the analysis of the body-build group physical pro-gresses versus the all-round physical fitness rates. The study found the physical progress of the adynamic-thoracic and digestive type groups being the highest in case of the all-round training systems; and the endurance trainings were found most beneficial for the masculine group. The physical development progress data of the sample showed the highest progress in the groups fo-cused on the key physical qualities as verified by the relative PWC test rates indicative of the improvements in the aerobic energy supply mechanisms. The progress was also verified by the physical development improvements by 15.1% in the endurance adynamic-thoracic group; the slightly lower progress was achieved by the speed-strength prioritizing masculine and digestive groups (11.98% and 5.4%, respectively): see Figure 2. %

Figure 1. Body-build group all-round physical fitness progress test rates

The lowest progress in this domain was achieved by the groups focused on the all-round physical trainings as verified by the PWC sagging by 1.52% on average.

Figure 2. Body-build group physical development progress test (PWC ) rates

The physical development progress tests in the sub-maximal power zone showed the highest progress in the all-round physicality training groups – as verified by the regress of the HRDAI test rates in the adynamic-thoracic, masculine and digestive groups (by 25.62%, 23.2% and 1.2%, respectively): see Figure 3. The lowest progress in this domain was achieved by the group trainings of the underdeveloped physical qualities (masculine and digestive types), with the HRDAI tested to fall by 8.9% and 10.6%, respectively) in the masculine and digestive groups and 4.7% in the adynamic-thoracic group. The groups focused on the lead physical qualities were tested with the average physical development progress rates with the HRDAI tested to fall by 9.55% on average. In addition, the HRDAI was tested to fall in the adynamic-thoracic and digestive groups by 12.97% and 9.6% and grow by 3.5% in the masculine group: see Figure 3.

Figure 3. Body-build group physical development progresses in the sub-maximal power HRDAI tests

One of the key progress indicators in the modern Physical Education service is the morbidity rate that was in special priority in the study. The group health was rated by the health indices i.e. the proportion of the healthy individuals in every group to the group total headcount.
Given on Figure 4 hereunder is the analysis of the group training systems versus the group mor-bidity rates. It shows that most beneficial for the adynamic-thoracic group were the endurance prioritizing trainings as verified by the health index growth by 17.5%. The masculine group morbidity rate was found to fall when the group trainings make a special emphasis on the speed-strength training tools; with the health index tested to grow by 19.1%. And the all-round physical trainings were found highly beneficial for the digestive group as verified by the health index growth by 11.3%.

 Figure 4. Body-build group progresses in the morbidity rates

We ranked the average group test data in our analyses, with each of the three experimental train-ing systems ranked by the relevant progress test rates/ indexes (in %) by points on a 3-point scale for every age/body type group. The lower were the total scores, the less efficient were the train-ing system for the group physical qualities and morbidity rates. Given in Table 2 hereunder are the summarized effects of the applied training systems on the test rates/ indexes. As demonstrat-ed by Table 2, the masculine and digestive groups progresses and health benefits were the highest in case of the endurance training system; whilst the adynamic-thoracic group showed the highest progress in the all-round physical trainings.

Table 2. Ranked benefits of the experimental training systems for the body-build-type groups

Training system priority

Body build type

A-T

M

D

Endurance

2

 

 

1

 

 

1

 

 

Speed-strength

 

3

 

 

2

 

 

3

 

All-round physical qualities

 

 

1

 

 

3

 

 

2

Conclusion. The study found the endurance building training elements being particularly benefi-cial for the physical fitness and performance building purposes; and showed the experimental training models being of different effect on the body-type specific morbidity rates. Health/ phys-ical training priorities of the physical training systems are recommended being prudently cus-tomized to the actual individual physicality and other specifics of the 10-14 year old schoolgirls, with a special priority to the endurance trainings.

References

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Corresponding author: levushkinsp@mail.ru

Abstract
Efficient customizable physical education models are indispensable for the children’s and ado-lescents’ health protection and improvement agenda, with the modern school physical education systems giving a special priority to the individualized/ physique-specific training tools. The study analyzes benefits of the training models customizable to physique, muscular fitness and health issues of 10-14-year-old girls classified by body types. Sampled for the study were the clinically healthy female students classified with the main health group and grouped by the body types as follows: adynamic- thoracic; masculine and digestive groups. The sample was further split up into 9 skill-specific experimental subgroups with the special priorities to the endurance, speed-strength and all-round physicality building trainings as follows: (1) endurance adynamic-thoracic; 2) speed-strength adynamic-thoracic; (3) all-round adynamic-thoracic; (4) endurance masculine; (5) speed-strength masculine; (6) all-round masculine; (7) endurance digestive; (8) speed-strength digestive; and (9) all-round digestive subgroups.
The physical training subgroup programs were run in the standard school physical education les-sons three times a week. On the whole, training of each experimental subgroup amounted to 96 training sessions designed on a group specific basis, with the training progress tested separately in every of the 9 subgroups. The study found the endurance building training elements being par-ticularly beneficial for the physical fitness and performance building purposes; and showed the experimental training models being of different effect on the body-type specific morbidity rates.