Physical development forecasting and training program efficiency rating in children’s sport aerobics

Associate Professor A.V. Trufanova1
Dr. Med., Professor V.G. Chernozemov1
Dr. Med., Professor S.G. Sukhanov1
PhD Med., Associate Professor N.B. Afanasenkova1 
PhD, Associate Professor I.Y. Korelskaya1
1M.V. Lomonosov North (Artic) Federal University, Arkhangelsk

Keywords: underage athletes, sport aerobics, training loads, regression modeling.

Background. Modern sport acrobatics is a complicated sport discipline with its difficult routines, high-intensity and long dynamic and static physical exercises with perfect controls of own and partner’s body masses [1, 4]. The valid Federal Standards and requirements to the sport acrobatics training systems imply the athlete’s progress period from a beginner to MS or WCMS qualification taking at least 10-15 years [1], with a clear reduction trend for the last decade. This was the reason for the initiative to offer new top ranking international competitions for the 11-16 year old masters (AGE program), with the 12+ year olds given an access to the MS training programs and the MS qualifications open for the 13 year olds [4]. A special priority in this context is given to the beginner selections and entrance health tests of the children willing to excel in sport aerobics [3]. The relevant medical and biological research projects with the sport morphology and physiology components shall, in our opinion, take into consideration the regional variations in the underage anthropometrics to find the morphological types favorable and unfavorable for the physical and competitive progress in the sport discipline. Thus the Russian North-Western Subartcic regions are still in need of the relevant studies.
Objective of the study was to assess benefits of the intersystem analysis and mathematical modeling methods in combination with the physical progress rating tests and forecasts for selections of prospects to the underage sport aerobics groups.
Methods and structure of the study. The study was run at the P.V. Usov Children and Youth Sport School and Sport Palace in Arkhangelsk, with the 10-13 year old (beginner) females trained in the sport aerobics group sampled for the study. The sample was tested by a set of anthropometrical/ physiological/ physical tests in November 2016 through November 2017 to obtain the physical development harmony (Kettle-2) rates and the key physical qualities (strength, flexibility, movement coordination etc.) test rates and analyze them versus the age norms [1]. The tests produced the Robinson indices; Shapovalova power rates; Ruffier indices; Stange breath-holding test rates; and Romberg-2 test rates, with the test data processed using the standard mathematical statistics and sport physiology toolkits. The intersystem correlation analysis and factorial analyses were run based on a single factor dispersion analysis with a regression modeling, with the differences of the data arrays rated significant at р<0.05.
Results and discussion. Based on the entrance (pre-training) test data including the Kettle-2 indices, the sample was classified as follows: 18.3% harmonically developed with good body builds; 59% harmonically developed with body mass shortages; and 22.7% non-harmonic with body mass shortages. The post-training tests found a significant (p<0.05) growth of the body masses, with the harmonically developed subgroup tested to grow from 18.3% to 40.1%; and with the body-mass-short harmonically developed subgroup tested to contract from 59% to 36.36%. The physical progress was due, as we believe, to the age-specific pre-pubertal transformations in the fat metabolism plus accelerated growth of the active skeletal muscles and passive components of the musculoskeletal system in the training process. Given on Figure 1 hereunder are the physiological progress test data of the sample.

Figure 1. Physiological progress test data of the sample

The physiological progress test data were interpreted as generally indicative of the age-specific changes with individual reactivity variations [1, 3, 8]. The sport-specific physical work dominated by acyclic unrepeated exercises with short high-intensity periods and relatively long rest breaks was found to facilitate the physical progress [2]. The tests showed the statistically significant progress in the Shapovalova and Romberg-2 test data. The well-designed and managed training system was found to facilitate fast progress in the movement coordination, strength, speed and speed endurance rates particularly high in the dorsal and abdominal muscle groups – as verified by the statistically significant (p<0.05) growth of the Kettle-2 indices.

The morphological/ physiological progress test data and forecasts were complemented by the regression modeling and factorial analysis based on the single-factor dispersion analysis of the data array – to find the strength factor (1) and coordination factor (2) being well correlated on a statistically significant (p<0.05) basis: see Figure 2.

Figure 2. Factorial weights of the test rates: HR heart rate; SBP systolic blood pressure; Stange test rate; STR Shapovalova test rate (leg lifts)

Most of the correlations of the test rates were moderate and positive, with the significant regression models of the factorial weights given in Table hereunder (F>Fst; p<0.05).

Table 1. Regression equations for the test rates in the sample
The dominant linear regression equations give the reasons to assume that the key physical qualities including the strength and movement coordination should grow till at least the pubertal age. The above calculation procedure and modeling tools may be recommended for selection of the 8-9-year-old prospects to the sport aerobics groups, with the qualifiers expected to demonstrate at least the threshold functionality test rates.

Conclusion. Tests showed the training system being well designed and efficient as verified by the key physical qualities progress test rates. The proposed analysis of the intersystem correlations of the strength ant movement coordination test rates with the relevant regression equations may be used to efficiently improve the children’s physical qualities in training process and successfully select prospects for the sport aerobics groups at children and youth sport schools.

References

  1. Bachinskaya N.V. Osobennosti postroeniya strukturyi mnogoletney podgotovki v sportivnoy akrobatike na sovremennom etape [Structural features of long-term training in sports acrobatics today]. Fizicheskoe vospitanie studentov. 2015. no.  1. pp. 3-10.
  2. Vinnikov D.A., Nikitina I.V. Klassifikatsionnaya programma po sportivnoy akrobatike na 2014-2017 gg. [Classification program in sports acrobatics for 2014-2017]. M., 2013. 25 p.
  3. Samigullina L.F. Kriterii otbora v sportivnoy akrobatike [Qualification criteria in sports aerobics]. Nasledie krupnykh sportivnykh sobyitiy kak faktor sotsialno-kulturnogo i ekonomicheskogo razvitiya regiona [Heritage of big sport events as a factor of sociocultural and economical development of the region]. Proc. res.-pract. conf.. VRSAPCST. Kazan. 2013. pp. 380-382.

Corresponding author: korela2010@yandex.ru

Abstract
Modern sport acrobatics is a complicated sport discipline with its difficult routines, high-intensity and long dynamic and static physical exercises with perfect controls of the own and partner’s body masses. The study was designed to rate physical progress in the 10-13 year old women’s sport aerobics groups by a set of anthropometrics/ physiological/ physical tests. The test set and analyses made it possible to rate the physical development harmony and the key physical qualities including strength, flexibility, coordination qualities etc. versus the age norms, with a regression modeling method used for analyses.
Tests showed the training system being well designed and efficient as verified by the key physical qualities progress test rates. The proposed analysis of the intersystem correlations of the strength ant movement coordination test rates with the relevant regression equations may be used to efficiently improve the children’s physical qualities in training process and successfully select prospects for the sport aerobics groups.