PhD, Associate Professor L.M. Bukova1
Dr.Biol., Professor Yu.A. Bukov1
Dr.Hab., Professor L.B. Andryushchenko2
1V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Simferopol
2Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow
3University of Technology and Humanities, Radom, Poland
Keywords: educational process, physical education, improvement, rehabilitation, methods, physical performance, functionality.
Background. The national research community gives a special priority to the academic physical education and sport service management efficiency [3, 4] since many study reports found [1, 2, 5] the academic education service quality and academic progress being facilitated by the trainings focused on the performance improvement components. Academic progress in the physical education and sport service was found determined by a variety of rehabilitation and performance building methods and models, with a special role played by the theoretical training tools [4, 2].
Objective of the study was to analyze benefits of a new academic physical education service model giving a special priority to the rehabilitation and performance improvement tools.
Methods and structure of the study. The study was run at V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University for one academic year. Sampled for the model testing experiment were the first-year students (n=30) split up into Experimental (EG) and Control (CG) Groups of 15 people each. The Control Group was trained as required by the valid physical education standards, and the Experimental Group training was complemented by the new academic physical education service model with an emphasis on rehabilitation and performance building aspects. An algorithm of the new academic physical education service model was designed to logically combine the best training, rehabilitation and progress test tools including the N.V. Anisimova physical fitness rating test system (2013) including standing long jump, 30m sprint, pull-ups on a horizontal bar, forward leans and 6min race tests; physical development rating Harvard step test; functionality rating breath holding tests and stepped physical performance test . The trainees’ functionality was rated by the traditional physiological test methods: dynamic spirometry and stepped-load functionality test.
We offered and tested the new academic physical education service model with the rehabilitation and performance control and building tools, with the special theoretical and practical sessions geared to attain specific goals by the relevant tools. The new academic physical education service model algorithm may be described as follows.
Warm-up part with the following goals: 1. Warm-up the body for the work; 2. Activate the cardio-respiratory system; 3. Warm-up the core muscle groups; 4. Mobilize the vital resource; and 5. Run mental conditioning for the upcoming work. The part takes12-15% of the total session time, with the aerobic trainings rated at 130-140 beats per min
Activation tools: 1. Walking/ rearranging practices; 2. Fast walking followed by jogging; 3. Body conditioning standing practices; 4. Body conditioning practices on the move; 5. Running and jumping practices; 6. Special exercises; and 7. Coordination and attention training practices.
Core part with the following goals: 1. Improve the rehabilitation processes; 2. Improve the performance; and 3. Increase the functionality reserve. The part takes 70-75% of the total session time, with the anaerobic-aerobic trainings rated at 180-190 beats per min.
Rehabilitation tools: 1. Low-intensity rest-time exercises; 2. Theoretically grounded passive rest; 3. Active and passive rest tools; 4. Respiration practices; 5. Exercises to activate the non-core muscle groups; and 6. Special relaxation practices.
Final part designed to: 1. Step down the physical activity; 2. Activate the rehabilitation mechanisms; 3. Scale down the mental and emotional tension; and 4. Come back to the pre-training status. The part takes 10% of the total session time, with the aerobic trainings rated at 110-120 beats per min.
Functionality slowing tools: 1. Final slow jogging; 2. Relaxation exercises; 3. Stretching; and 4. Respiration practices.
The above training components give a special priority to the current HR tests since the HR is indicative of the phsycial workload and activity of the body rehabilitation processes; and give a sound physiological basis for the training process control in the context of the fatigue testing, prevention and performance improvement purposes.
Therefore, the theoretical and practical sessions should be prudently designed and managed to keep the physical loads withing the individual physical and mental fitness ranges and mobilize the environmental factors of positive influence on the individual adaptability. It should be noted that the rehabilitation tools are used in the toolkit geared to control the fintess building processes. Thus the warm-up part of the new training model offers the physical practices to attain the following two goals: (1) run active rest-time practices to mitigate the mental/ emotional stressors of the academic studies; and (2) make the body fit for the upcoming training loads based on the physical work stepping principle.
In the core part, the key rehabilitation tools are selected as required by the physical activity specifics and the relevant fatigue patterns – e.g. energy costs by components, functionality deficiencies and the homeostasis test rates. The physicality and functionality building goals are basically attained by the cyclic aerobic practices, with the rehab tools being the most efficient in the pre-fatigue time and dominated by the low-intensity exercises, non-core muscle groups activation practices and active/ passive rest. It should be noted that aerobic practices are relatively hard for the respiration system and, hence, soon develop fatigue. That is the reason why the rehab practices should make an emphasis on the passive breathing to normalize the gaseous homeostasis and stimulate the parasympathetic department of the autonomous nervous system.
The final part of each training session is highly important for the rehabilitation purposes and deserves a special attention. With the musculoskeletal apparatus performance and physiological systems activity sagging, the body functionality gives growth to the anabolitic phase of metabolism, with the stretching and relaxation exercises known to activate the relevant processes.
Results and discussion. Tests of the new academic physical education service model with the rehabilitation and performance controls showed the model being highly beneficial as verified by the Experimental Group progress in cardio-respiratory system functionality and physical performance test rates. The fatigue tolerance rated by the Harvard step test was found to meaningfully grow 20.0% more (p<0.001) than in the CG. The dynamic spirometry tests showed the EG progress in the respiratory muscle performance being significantly (p<0.001) better than in the CG. The blood circulation system functionality was tested more economical with the pulse cost of the standard physical tests found to drop by 25.0% (p<0.05) and the rehab time found to fall by 22.4% (p<0.05).
The functionality growth rates of the EG versus CG for the model testing academic year were associated with progress in the physical fitness tests, with the post-experimental individual PF in the EG and CG rated good and satisfactory, respectively, and with the EG tested with the highest relative progress in the flexibility, strength, speed and speed strength test rates.
Conclusion. The new academic physical education service model with the theoretical and practical sessions giving a special priority to the rehabilitation and performance improvement practices was tested beneficial as verified by the meaningful progress of the EG versus CG for the test period.
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The study analyzes the ways to optimize the academic physical education service with a special priority to the rehabilitation and performance building tools. The study was run at V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University for one academic year. Sampled for the experiment were the first-year students (n=30) split up into Experimental (EG) and Control (CG) Groups of 15 people each. The Reference Group was trained as required by the valid physical education standards, and the Experimental Group training was complemented by the new academic physical education service model with an emphasis on rehabilitation and work efficiency building aspects. The new model efficiency was tested by the following methods: physical fitness rating test system by N.V. Anisimova (2013) including a standing long jump, 30m sprint, pull-ups on horizontal bar, forward leans and 6min race tests; physical development rating Harvard step test; and functionality rating breath holding tests and stepped physical work test. The new academic physical education service model to facilitate rehabilitation and work efficiency building was tested beneficial as verified by the Experimental Group progress in cardio-respiratory system functionality and physical performance test rates.