Dr.Hab., Professor L.D. Nazarenko1
Dr.Hab., Professor L.I. Lubysheva2
Dr.Hab., Professor I.S. Kolesnik1
1Ulyanovsk State University of Education, Ulyanovsk
2Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow
Keywords: V.K. Bal’sevich’s conceptual heritage, kinesiological potential, modern physical education and sport service, ontokinesiological approach, urban sports, educational system.
Background. Modern integrated concept of a human nature interprets man as a bio-social entity with a special attention to the deep correlations of the mental and physical aspects in every human activity. V.K. Bal’sevich with his age-specific motor function progress theory largely contributed to the global science to demonstrate potential benefits of the theory for the health improvement policies and practices.
Objective of the study was to analyze modern sportizated physical education on the whole and urban communal sports in particular in the context of a ontokinesiological approach.
Results and discussion. As provided by V.K. Bal’sevich, habitual physical activity may, when the individual morphological and biomechanical motor performance test rates are taken into account, secure the individual best physical fitness rates and growth of the kinesiological potential.
The notion of kinesiological potential offered by V.K. Bal’sevich for the physical education theory may be defined as the systemic and technologically sound set of motor skills and abilities required for the relevant movement sequences, with the preset qualitative/ quantitative specifications. We have complemented the frame definition by the relevant mental, movement coordination, biomechanical, morphological and functional indices to comprehensively rate an individual kinesiological potential .
V.K. Bal’sevich (2009) found that an individual kinesiological potential grows steadily till at least 20 years of age, then stabilizes in the middle age followed by the motor functionality sags in the late stages of ontogenesis. V.K. Bal’sevich underlines in this context that the physicality growth pace is generally uneven and largely determined by the individual genetic factors albeit some of the growth factors may be adjusted by a variety of the modern sporting tools. That is the reason why the sport trainers should well understand the natural body development logics and mechanisms of their coordination with and transformation by the modern sport training tools. The sequence of ontogenetic transformations in the human motor functionality is primarily dictated by the biological maturing process making the body fully fit for social functions and progress. Therefore, the ontokinesiological approach assumes that the genetically predetermined kinesiological potential (including physical qualities, motor abilities and adaptability) may be transformed by different tools including persistent body conditioning or athletic training practices.
V.K. Bal’sevich defined athletic training as the human body transformation practice. This seemingly plain formula refers to the fundamental feature of living beings including humans – that is the ability to progress, adapt and change. Originally the transformation ability is included into the inborn hereditary assets the individual is vested with and employs for the whole life. Target trainings may significantly improve this ability for process albeit cannot modify its core logics formed for millions of years of the life evolution on the planet including the human evolution. The core logics may be interpreted as the uneven progress of every part and function of the human motor apparatus and other bodily organs and systems in the living process.
Knowing the fundamental logics of the individual motor functionality progress, we may formulate the key rule of a physical training system as follows: training process shall be designed and managed as required by the current state of the trainee and customized to the natural motor functionality progress profile .
Training workloads should be prudently customized to the individual physical progress and age-specific traits i.e. the training system should be sensitive to the individual predispositions and fitness for the variety of training tools being effective enough. Compliance with this key rule of the training system design means, among other things, that the practical trainings should be effectively harmonized with the real genetic prerequisites for physical progress and fundamental individual bodily traits including transformability, plasticity, learning ability and progress potential.
Therefore, an individual athletic training/ physical conditioning system may be defined as the specifically designed and controlled process geared to spur up the individual kinesiological potential mobilization and perfection aspects. In this context, a special attention should be given to the children and youth sportizated physical education services since this age is highly susceptible to the psychophysical progress tools of the modern training systems.
Practical experience has showed that modern sportizated physical education technologies may be highly beneficial when applied in the educational system. That is the reason why the relevant federal agencies have supported the local physical education initiatives including the innovative “Judo to School!” and “Sambo to School!” projects. As required by the valid Federal State Higher Educational Standards, the academic physical education service offers elective sport courses to complement the standard physical education and sport curricula [4, 5].
It should be mentioned that the sportizated physical education services need to be designed to secure an integrative unity of the biological and social nature referred to by the kinesiological potential conception. It is necessary, above all, to pay attention to the individual values and priorities forming education with contribution of the personality centered education technologies provided by the modern educational kinesiology .
The kinesiological patterns of the age-specific physical progress found by V.K. Bal’sevich have helped find practical physical education models for different age and fitness groups, including the urban communal sport ones. Thus many leading players of the USSR national football team, the world strongest team of the post-war period, including E. Streltsov, V. Ivanov, V. Voronin and some others appreciated their early persistent daily ball-handling practices in their local urban teams that laid a basis for their technical and tactical progress at the excellence training stage and top mastery. Presently the urban sports, when prudently designed and managed as recommended by the V.K. Bal’sevich study findings, may be highly beneficial for the mass sports in the apartment block areas including volleyball, basketball, football, table tennis and ice hockey trainings and competitions; plus special fitness groups on the sites equipped with training machines and sports appliances.
In any apartment block the local sport enthusiasts may find former gymnasts, team sport players, martial artists, tennis players, weightlifters and other retired athletes to support the physical education and sport projects. Local communities may form age-, interest-, fitness- and health-specific groups and sport teams for friendly competitions and mass sport events. Interest of the local communities in sports may be promoted by the picked team competitions of the local apartment block teams in women’s, men’s and mixed sports, with every age group encouraged to join the variety of popular events and services
Urban PRS projects may be successfully implemented with support from the physical education teachers of the local comprehensive schools and trainers of the local Children and Youth Sport Schools. Every physical education teacher and coach may be engaged to provide assistance to the specific groups on schedule. This voluntary physical education service will help them improve their communication with the local residents find gifted children that are disinterested in the regular school physical education lessons albeit may be enthusiastic and successful in the optional informal off-class urban sports. The school physical education teachers and coaches in their voluntary urban sport services will have ample opportunities to get better acquainted with their students’ families; find volunteer assistants for the extra-curricular physical education practices, competitions, mass health events and holidays, facilitate trainings for the GTO Complex tests and test new physical education service models. Such urban physical education and sport initiatives will:
– Physically activate the local communities by offering a wide range of habitual physical education and sport practices for the local age, fitness and health group trainings;
– Engage the local retired athletes and physical education enthusiasts in the communal physical education and sport initiatives to support children, youth and senior age physical education and sport groups;
– Engage the local school physical education teachers and CSS/ CYSS trainers into the urban communal physical education and sport initiatives to have their practical consulting service and support for the sport groups; and
– Establish communication and cooperation with the retired sport celebrities to employ their precious sporting experiences, social contacts and authority for promotion of the communal physical education and sport initiatives and further physical activation of the local communities.
Conclusion. Communal sports offer great benefits conditional on the V.K. Bal’sevich’s kinesiological potential concept being implemented in practice by many national shareholders including urban apartment block communities. Projects to efficiently synergize the modern sports-prioritizing physical education and sport service in the educational system and the urban communal sport system will step up the physical education service efficiency and customization to the communal demands to effectively satisfy, among other things, the natural need for physical activity and progress; put the physical education and sport service on a sound practical basis; and select the genetically gifted and physically active and enthusiastic children for special physical education and sport group trainings.
The study was performed on State Order #6.7801.2017/БЧ under the Functionality Management for Individual Athletic Adaptability in Different Sport Disciplines and Skill Groups Project.
- Bal'sevich V.K. Ocherki po vozrastnoy kineziologii cheloveka [Essays on developmental kinesiology in man]. Moscow: Sovetskiy sport publ., 2009, 220 p.
- Dmitriev S.V. Sotsiokulturnaya teoriya dvigatelnykh deystviy cheloveka [Socio-cultural theory of human motor actions]. N. Novgorod: NSPU publ., 2011, 359 p.
- Zagrevskaya A.I., Lubysheva L.I. Ontokineziologicheskiy podkhod kak metodologiya sportizatsii fizicheskogo vospitaniya v sisteme obrazovaniya [Ontokinesiological approach for sportization of physical education within national education system]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2017, no. 6, pp. 6–8.
- Lubysheva L.I. Sovremennaya sportivnaya nauka: ot stagnatsii k novoy paradigme razvitiya [Modern sport science: from stagnation to new development paradigm]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2017, no. 5, pp. 3-5.
- Lubysheva L.I. Sport i sotsializatsiya: ot metodologii sportizatsii – k innovatsionnym sotsiokulturnym proektam [Sport and socialization: from sport-centered methods to innovative socio-cultural projects]. Fizicheskaya kultura: vospitanie, obrazovanie, trenirovka, 2017, no. 1, pp. 2-4.
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Modern integrated concept of the human nature interprets human as a bio-social entity with a special attention to the deep correlations of the mental and physical aspects in any human activity. The article analyzes promises of the V.K. Bal’sevich’s ideas and concepts of physical activity as the key health protection and kinesiological potential mobilization factor in the context of the modern physical education and sport service in the national educational system and in the communal sport projects to facilitate physical progress of every age group regardless of the individual physical fitness, abilities and social statuses. Presently the communal sports offer great benefits conditional on the V.K. Bal’sevich’s research accomplishments being implemented in practice by many national shareholders including urban apartment block communities that may use the communal areas to deploy volleyball and basketball playgrounds; football fields; table tennis facilities; ice hockey grounds in winter time; different training machines, sport equipment and appliances. Projects to efficiently synergize the modern physical education and sport service in the educational system and the communal sport system will step up the physical education service efficiency and customization to the communal demands to effectively satisfy, among other things, the natural need for physical activity and progress.