Long-term physical training system design for athletes with musculoskeletal and visual system disorders

PhD, Associate Professor G.I. Deryabina1
PhD, Associate Professor V.L. Lerner1
Dr.Hab., Professor L.N. Makarova1
PhD, Associate Professor O.S. Terentyeva2
1Tambov State University n.a. G.R. Derzhavin, Tambov
2Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Tambov

Keywords: adaptive sport, approach, provisions, athletes with musculoskeletal and visual system disorders, coordination qualities, long-term physical training system design.

Introduction. The analysis of the long-term physical training system for athletes with musculoskeletal and visual system disorders trained at the children’s and youth sports adaptive schools showed that, at the moment, due attention has not been given to the targeted development of their coordination qualities in the overall structure of sports training of this category of people: this process is spontaneous and is carried out in the course of practicing a particular exercise technique [5]. These circumstances necessitated the search for methodological approaches and arrangement of provisions for the long-term physical training system aimed to develop coordination qualities of athletes diagnosed with musculoskeletal and visual system disorders, as well as specification of the means to develop their coordination qualities with due regard to the peculiarities of their manifestation.
Objective of the study was to theoretically substantiate the provisions for the long-term physical training system aimed to develop coordination qualities of athletes with musculoskeletal and visual system disorders.
Methods and structure of the study. The study was carried out in 2016. Sampled for the study were the 16-40 year-old trainees of the children’s and youth sports adaptive schools of the Russian Federation (in the cities of Arkhangelsk, Voronezh, Grozny, Tambov) (n=183, including 94 females and 89 males). The subjects belonged to the beginner training, advanced training, and sport excellence groups and were engaged in the following adaptive sports: track and field athletics, swimming, powerlifting, football, goalball, table tennis. All the participants were diagnosed with musculoskeletal and visual system disorders of varying severity.
Results and discussion. The analysis had made it possible to identify two methodological approaches that served as the basis for the formulation of provisions for the long-term customizable physical training system with the coordination development component.
Being guided by the central ideas of B.G. Ananyev, P.K. Anokhin, I.V. Blauberg, V.N. Sadovsky, E.G. Yudin, we proposed a systemic-structural approach as one of the basic approaches, where the body of athletes (with health deviations) is viewed as a system consisting of the functioning subsystems of organs, on the one hand, and a motor action is viewed as a system of movements, on the other hand [1, 3].
An individually-differentiated approach (A.A. Kirsanov, I.M. Osmolovskaya, I.E. Unt, E.A. Yamburg) was proposed as the second methodological approach, which, in relation to the issue under study, consists in the following idea: physical abnormalities and the diversity of their forms in athletes with musculoskeletal and visual system disorders determine the content and organization of the training process [7, 8].
Following the basic theoretical foundations of the above methodological approaches, we substantiated the provisions for the long-term physical training system aimed to develop coordination qualities of athletes with musculoskeletal and visual system disorders. When developing the leading provision, we took the following as the basis: when building coordination qualities in athletes with musculoskeletal and visual system disorders, gaining motor "experience" and its successful employment success in response to the environmental challenges are mandatory. The association theory supposes that already-learned motor elements are taken from the memory when practicing new movements, after which they are automatically integrated into the process of forming new motor elements in a natural way. Therefore, the more new movements are learnt during the training process, the more associative bonds are formed. In terms of a genetically determined mobility of nervous processes (lability), these bonds ensure fast adoption of "motor" decisions dictated by the ever-changing external conditions.
The next provision was designed to make allowance for the effects on sports activities of degenerative processes triggered by the motor and visual analyzer system malfunctions [7]. According to N.A. Bernstein (1966), among the factors that determine the motion construction at each level of the multilevel system of motion control are: morphological localization, leading afferentation, specific properties of movements, main and background role of higher levels in motor acts, pathological syndromes and dysfunctions [2].
Depending on the affected area (brain, spinal cord, conduction tract), individuals diagnosed with musculoskeletal system disorders are characterized by disturbances of voluntary motion patterns: unstable walking, pathological positions of the body and limbs, poor muscle tone, violation of the manipulative action technique, imbalance and lack of coordination [4]. Therefore, the corrective effect should be aimed at those types of coordination qualities that are most sensitive to such disorders: static and dynamic balance, spatial orientation, differentiation of muscle efforts.
The following provision that might contribute to the design of the long-term physical training system for athletes with musculoskeletal and visual system disorders is addressing the disorder zones revealed by the coordination ability tests (distinguishing the groups of people with upper and lower limb disorders). As stated by N.A. Bernstein, motor coordination consists in overcoming the excess degrees of freedom of the organs needed for movement, in other words, turning them into controlled systems, which is the main difficulty in controlling the motor apparatus [2]. In this view, the main difficulties in controlling the motor apparatus of individuals with musculoskeletal system disorders are as follows: the need to distribute attention between locomotion in controlled (unaffected) joints and uncontrolled (affected) body parts; coordination of motor acts between these body parts; overcoming the existing (residual) and compensation for the missing degrees of freedom due to the disorder; elastic flexibility of properly functioning muscles and difficulty in controlling those with impaired tone.
The next provision to be observed in coordination qualities development process is consideration of the motor nature of hearing and development on this basis of the ability to recognize temporal characteristics of sound with the subsequent transfer of these sensations to the motor sphere during the formation of the rhythmic structure of movement [5].
The following provision was designed to consider individual characteristics of formation and development of the body fitness shape of an individual athlete, in team sports – of a team as a whole.
The effective development of coordination qualities in athletes with musculoskeletal and visual system disorders also requires that another necessary provision be implement - addressing the physical and sensor asymmetries. The issue of addressing the sensor asymmetries in sports practice has not been sufficiently studied to date, although there is evidence of its effect on such parameters as the field of vision, visual acuity, range of vision, etc.
Conclusions. Therefore, the use of the systemic-structural and individually-differentiated approaches as the methodological base enabled us to formulate the provisions for optimizing the long-term physical training system aimed to develop coordination qualities of athletes with musculoskeletal and visual system disorders.

The study was performed under State Contract No. 495 (Contract Sponsor - Ministry of Sports of the Russian Federation) “Development of scientifically substantiated approaches to the design of a long-term physical training system aimed to develop coordination qualities of athletes with health deviations”

References

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Corresponding author: dergal@yandex.ru

Abstract
Presently the global sport communities give a growing priority to adaptive sports including Paralympic sports. The article analyzes the long-term physical training system design options for the athletes diagnosed with musculoskeletal and visual system disorders. The study makes an emphasis on the systemic individualized design options with the relevant provisions for the long-term customizable physical training system with the coordination development component under the traditional physical education system. The design shall provide for the necessary motor experience and its employment success in response to the environmental challenges; prevent the degenerating processes triggered by the analyzer system malfunctions; address the disorder zones revealed by the coordination ability tests; improve the auditory functions, discrimination abilities and sensitivity to rhythmic patterns associated with physical activity; set the individual and team athletic progress trends; and address the physical and sensor asymmetries in the coordination qualities development process.