Elite female mas-wrestlers’ anthropometrical and functionality characteristics

Y.Y. Zakharova1
PhD V.G. Starostin1
A.Y. Petrova1
1North-Eastern Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov, Yakutsk

Keywords: mas-wrestling, women’s sport, anthropometric characteristics, somatic type, indices.

Background. Modern mas-wrestling sport attracts growing numbers of female wrestlers. Nature endowed the female body with distinctive features dictated mostly by the childbirth function with the relevant bodily and age-specific performance specifics of many organs and systems [5]. As underlined by experts, modern mas-wrestlers should develop strong limb/ dorsal muscles and the competitive-performance-specific speed, endurance and flexibility rates [1, 3, 4], with a special role in their competitive progress played by the anthropometric characteristics and physicality rates.

Objective of the study was to find a range of bodily anthropometric characteristics and functinality rates facilitating progress in the elite female mas-wrestling sport.

Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were the 21-43 year old national women’s MS team members (n=6) in the pre-seasonal (prior to the World Championship) training period, and three of them later on won the titles of World Champions, two were the second and one the third. The study was run at the IPCS’ Research and Education Center for Olympic and National Sports at North-Eastern Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov. We applied the Anthropological Research Institute method (V.V. Bunak, 1941) to obtain anthropometric characteristics under the study; the J. Matiegka formula to rate the bone/ fat/ muscle masses [10]; the Rees–Eysenck indices for somatic typing procedure as recommended by B.A. Nikityuk, N.A. Kornetov [7]; plus the functionality rating methods. The test data were processed by the standard Excel and IBM Statistics 22 toolkits.

Results and discussion. Based on the Rees–Eysenck indices (REI), athletes 1, 2 were classified with the dolichomorphic type; athlete 5 with mesomorphic and athletes 3, 4, 6 with brachymorphic types: see Table 1. Based on the Pignet body build indices (PI), two athletes were classified with the strong and the rest with very strong body built types.

Table 1. Sample anthropometric characteristics

#

Age

Place

Body mass, kg

Body length, cm

Chest size, cm

PI

REI

BMI

EI

1

27

I

58,4

163,1

88,0

16,7

108,73

21,95

6,45

2

41

I

75,0

173,0

92,0

6,0

106,79

25,06

5,50

3

43

I

76,4

166,5

99,0

-8,9

92,50

27,56

15,75

4

21

II

75,55

165,3

102,5

-12,75

91,83

27,65

19,85

5

32

II

55,45

157,0

85,0

16,55

104,67

22,50

6,50

6

38

III

94,9

161,0

114,5

-48,4

83,85

36,61

34,00

Note: PI Pignet index; REI Rees–Eysenck index; BMI body mass index, EI Erisman index

Athletes 1, 2, 5 were tested with the BMI within the norm; athletes 3, 4 were tested with an excessive body mass; and athlete 6 with obesity. EI varied within the above-moderate range that means that the sample was tested with the high chest sizes. The body composition analysis found the absolute and relative muscle, fat and bone mass in the sample averaging 32.45 kg, 16.57 kg and 9.57 kg and 45.23%, 21.80% and 13.35%, respectively: see Table 2.

The dolichomorphic and mesomorphic somatic types were tested with the highest (44.74%, 47.62% and 52.44%) relative muscle mass rates, respectively. Relative fat masses were medium in three athletes, low in two athletes and excessive in one athlete (of brachymorphic type).

Table 2. Body composition test rates

#

Absolute muscle mass, kg

Relative muscle mass, %

Absolute fat mass, kg

Relative fat mass, %

Absolute bone mass, kg

Relative bone mass, %

1

26,13

44,74

8,31

14,22

8,33

14,27

2

35,71

47,62

15,34

20,45

11,37

15,16

3

32,11

42,02

16,93

22,16

10,21

13,37

4

33,58

44,44

12,63

16,71

9,10

12,05

5

29,08

52,44

11,41

20,57

7,78

14,03

6

38,08

40,12

34,82

36,69

10,65

11,22

Mean

32,45

45,23

16,57

21,80

9,57

13,35

As reported by T.P. Zamchiy and Y.V. Koriagina, absolute and relative muscle, fat and bone masses in women weightlifting sport average 32.2 kg, 16.2 kg and 8.9 kg and 49.0%, 24.2% and 13.6%, respectively [2]. Therefore, the sampled female mas-wrestlers are lagging behind in the average muscle mass and fat mass with the bone mass being about the same.

Deadweight dynamometry (DWDM) data with the deadweight indices (DWI) showed the dorsal muscles being relatively highly developed (Table 3) since the female mas-wrestlers give a special priority to this muscle group in the trainings. Our studies of another group of women athletes showed a significant correlation between the deadlift test rates and success rates in the group mas-wrestling competition (r = -0.790) [6].

Orthostatic test rate (OTR), on the other hand, found hypersympathicotonia in athletes 1, 2, 3, 4 and normosympathicotonia in athletes 5, 6. The hypersympathicotonia in most of the sample may be due, in our opinion, to the high training workloads during the test time. Physicality test rates (PTR) in the sample were high, and the adaptability tests using the functionality variation indices (FVI) found a high functionality in four athletes and low/ insufficient in two athletes.

Table 3. Functionality test rates of the sample

#

DWI

СИ

VCI

OTR

PTR

FVI

ER

PPR

1

105

179,79

2700

42

1,12

2,05

15,00

0,93

2

90

120,00

2700

24

1,16

2,18

18,86

1,03

3

95

124,35

3000

36

0,64

3,54

20,40

1,15

4

135

178,69

3150

36

0,95

2,46

21,00

1,16

5

115

207,39

2300

18

0,92

2,51

21,00

0,97

6

125

131,72

2000

18

0,99

3,15

26,00

1,13

Note: DWI deadweight index; OTR orthostatic test rate; VCI vital capacity index; PTR physicality test rate; FVI functionality variation index; ER endurance ratio; PPR potential performance rate

Endurance ratios (ER) found the cardiovascular system functionality growth in athlete 1 and functionality falls in the others. The potential performance rate (PPR) was tested high only in athletes 1, 2, 5. This was the reason for us to recommend general endurance trainings for the women mas-wrestlers. The high strength test rates versus the relatively low endurance rates may be due to the fact that many sport specialists believe the modern endurance training systems being detrimental to the strength rates [8, 9].

Conclusion. It is beyond doubt that some sports, including the strength intensive ones, favor certain body built types believed to facilitate the competitive progress. The study found the mesomorphic and dolichomorphic body types being the most beneficial for progress in the female mas-wrestlers. It was assumed that multiannual hard mas-wrestling practices develop the sport-specific body type characterized by some alleviation of the natural dimorphic variations and a slight andromorphism.

References

  1. Borokhin M.I., Cherkashin A.V., Baishev I.I., Portnyagin I.I. Vliyanie zanyatiy mas-restlingom na pokazateli fizicheskogo razvitiya [Effect of mas-wrestling on physical development indices]. Fizicheskaya kultura: vospitanie, obrazovanie, trenirovka. 2015. no. 5. pp. 16-18.
  2. Zamchiy T.P., Koryagina Yu.V. Morfologicheskie, funktsionalnye i psikhologicheskie osobennosti sportsmenov i sportsmenok silovykh vidov sporta s pozitsii polovogo dimorfizma [Morphological, functional and psychological characteristics of male and female athletes in strength sports in view of sexual dimorphism]. Lechebnaya fizkultura i sportivnaya meditsina. 2011. no. 7 (91). pp. 18-26.
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Corresponding author: jana.zacharova1976@gmail.com

Abstract

Modern mas-wrestling sport attracts growing numbers of female wrestlers. The study run at the IPCS’ Research and Education Center for Olympic and National Sports at North-Eastern Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov was designed to obtain and analyze the elite women mas-wrestlers’ anthropometric characteristics and functionality rates. Sampled for the study were the 21-43 year old Russia’s female MS team members (n=6) in the pre-season (prior to the World Championship) training period. We applied the Anthropologic Research Institute method (V.V. Bunak, 1941) to obtain anthropometric characteristics under the study; the J. Matiegka formula to rate the bone/ fat/ muscle masses; the Rees–Eysenck indices for somatic typing procedure as recommended by B.A. Nikityuk, N.A. Kornetov; plus the functionality rating methods. The study found the mesomorphic and dolichomorphic body types being the most beneficial for progress in the female mas-wrestling sport. It was assumed that long-term hard mas-wrestling practices develop the sport-specific body type characterized by some alleviation of the natural dimorphic variations and a slight andromorphism.