Dr.Hab., Professor T.F. Orekhova1
PhD E.V. Sergeeva1
1Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk
Keywords: sportization, students, test rates, bodily systems, Student t-criterion.
Background. Many researchers of the theory and practice of physical education and sports (E.P. Ilyin , P.F. Lesgaft , L.I. Lubysheva  et al] find that physical practices are highly beneficial for the physiological systems functionality – that in its turn is critical for progress in any human activity. Our experience has shown that one of the most effective means of physical development of students is the application of a complex of personality-oriented and health-protecting technologies in the physical education process .
Objective of the study was to test the physiological systems functionality in the first-year students trained in the academic Track and Field Sports and Weightlifting Sport Groups.
Methods and structure of the study. The study involved the first-year (17-18 year-old) male students of the technical departments of FSBEI HE Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University (n=63). The subjects were divided into two groups – Track and Field Sports (n=33) and Weightlifting Sport (n=30) – and tested during the physical education classes. Their physiological systems functionality was rated by measuring the anthropometric (body length, body mass, body mass index, strength index) and physiometric (birth-death ratio, Stange’s test) indicators characterizing the state of the locomotor system, muscular system, respiratory system, and the body's tolerance to hypoxia (the measurements were taken not more than twice during the academic year). This was the first step towards analyzing the students’ physical condition.
The body-weight ratio is defined by the value called the body mass index (BMI), which makes it possible to indirectly determine insufficient (below 18.5), normal (from 18.5 to 24.9) or excessive (from 25.0 to 29.9) body mass, as well as the first, second or third degree of obesity (if BMI exceeds 30). The absolute muscle mass of the right and left hands was measured by means of a wrist dynamometer and evaluated relative to the norm, which for the 17-18 year-old males ranges between 45.9-51.0 kg. We calculated the strength index (SI) of the hand flexor muscles by the percentage ratio of the absolute strength (kg) to body mass (kg) by the following criteria: "below average" (less than 65%), "average" (65–80%), "above average" (more than 80%). In this case, it was the result of the dominant hand that was considered.
The respiratory system functionality was rated by measuring vital capacity (VC). The birth-death ratio (BDR) indicates normal or insufficient vital capacity, as well as overweight, which is diagnosed in young males with this ratio being below 55 ml/kg. The body’s tolerance to hypoxia, excessive carbon dioxide, was determined by the timed inspiratory capacity rate (Stange’s test), which is normally equal to 40–55 sec.
The second step was to compare the data obtained with the normal values in order to identify physical disabilities in the students and determine the most effective personality-oriented and health-saving technologies aimed to correct them.
The third step was to compare the indicators of physiological systems functionality and stability in the students trained in the academic Track and Field Sports and Weightlifting Sport Groups using the statistical Student t-criterion. In our study, with the degree of freedom κ=61, the boundary values of Student t-criterion were equal to two (tgr=2).
Results and discussion. The data obtained lead to the following conclusions: 1) on average, the body length of the students trained in the academic Track and Field Sports and Weightlifting Sport Groups did not differ significantly and amounted to 176.9 and 176.7 cm, respectively; 2) the body mass of the track athletes (66.4 kg) was on average lower than that of the weightlifters (72.2 kg); 3) the mean value of the wrist muscle strength was 55.3 kg in the track athletes, and 48.1 kg - in the weightlifters, which is deemed "above the norm" in the former and "normal" in the latter; 4) the students’ vital capacity was on average higher (3557 ml) in the track athletes than in the weightlifters (3497 ml), which is basically normal for both groups; 5) the average body mass index in the track athletes was lower than in the weightlifters, and equaled 21.4 and 23.4, respectively, which is the lower limit of normal for the track athletes and upper limit of normal for the weightlifters; 6) the mean value of the strength index in the track athletes (83.4%) was 8.4% higher than normal, which indicated the dominance of the muscle tissue over the fat tissue, while in the weightlifters (67.1%) it was 7.9% lower than normal, which can be explained by the high content of fat mass; 7) the birth-death ratio for the Track and Field Sports Group was on average equal to 54.3, which is below normal and indicates insufficient VC relative to the body mass, and for the Weightlifting Sport Group - 49.7, which is much lower than the norm and at the same time indicates excess weight; 8) the mean value of the timed inspiratory capacity in the track athletes (67 sec) was lower than that in the weightlifters (73 sec), which can be explained by the dependence of this indicator on the athletes’ volitional qualities and habits that develop under the influence of the kind of sport they practice. In addition, the study found that regular and long-term sports activities lead to an increase of this indicator in the track athletes.
The mean values of wrist strength of the dominant hand and strength index in the students trained in the academic Track and Field Sports Group (t=2.58) exceeded those in the students trained in the Weightlifting Sport Group (t=3.89). In terms of the body mass and body mass index, the weightlifters’ indicators (t=2.17) exceeded those of the track athletes (t=2.60). The difference in these two indicators testifies to a statistically significant difference between the samples with the permissible deviation being p<0.05. The body mass indices made it possible to distinguish between the weightlifters with normal weight, overweight, and obesity. The wrist muscle strength and strength index in the track athletes testified to the predominance of the muscle mass over the fat one. Moreover, both groups were found to have low values of the birth-death ratio (below normal), which indicated insufficient development of the students’ respiratory system.
The detected differences in the wrist strength rates of the dominant hand and strength index obtained in the track athletes and weightlifters are explained by different mean values of their body mass. Since the values of body mass and body mass index in the weightlifters exceeded those in the track athletes (on average - by 5.8 kg and 2 points, respectively), and the values of muscle strength and strength index in the track athletes exceeded those in the weightlifters (by 7.2 kg and 16.3%, respectively), we can conclude that the students trained in the academic Track and Field Sports Group, as opposed to the Weightlifting Sport Group, had the greatest muscle mass, as the more the muscle mass, the greater the muscle strength. The body mass index determined showed six underweight students in the track and field athletes group and eight overweight students in the weightlifter group, who are supposed to undergo an individualized correctional health program in the future.
Conclusions. The study data obtained by the bodily anthropometric and physiometric measurements lead to the conclusion that students choose between the types of sportizated physical education based on the following indicators: for weightlifters - body mass rate and body mass index, and for track athletes - wrist muscle strength and strength index.
The difference between individual and normal indicators forms the basis for the development of individualized physical training programs aimed to normalize the deviations. Students diagnosed with overweight are recommended to follow a nutritional advice (compliance with nutrition prescription, balance between energy expenditures and energy consumption, optimal ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, etc.); track athletes are offered to train under the programs of development of the respiratory system aimed to improve the body stamina (running, swimming, cycling, cross-country skiing, etc.). Diaries are used as a tool for remote management of students' activities in terms of implementation of an individualized correctional health program: a training diary - for track athletes, a nutrition diary - for weightlifters. Daily diarising enables students to adopt the attitude of onlookers able to monitor own health, reactions of own body, which stimulates their cognitive activity in terms of preservation and promotion of health.
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Many researchers of the physical education and sport theory and practice find that physical practices are highly beneficial for the physiological systems functionality – that in its turn is critical for progress in any human activity. The study makes an attempt to find objectively testable differences in the trainees’ physical progress rates in the sports-centered (sportizated) physical education service at technical university. Objective of the study was to test the physiological systems functionality in the first-year students trained in the academic Track and Field Sports and Weightlifting Sport Groups and rate the intergroup progress differences using the Student t-criterion. We tested for the purposes of the study the body mass, body length, vital capacity and wrist strength to produce the body mass indices, strength indices, vitality indices; and run breath-holding tests in the both sport groups to compare the test data with the normal values. As a result, the wrist strength rates, body mass indices, vital capacity rates and strength indices were rated ‘normal’ in both groups; and the breath-holding capacity was rated ‘above the norm’. The vitality indices in the Track and Field Sports and Weightlifting Sport Groups were tested ‘subnormal’ and ‘slightly subnormal’, respectively, with the latter test rate indicative of the excessive body mass. The Student t-criterion showed meaningful differences in the in the Track and Field Sports versus Weightlifting Sport Groups average wrist strength rates, strength indices, average body mass rates and the body mass indices. The study data and analyses demonstrate the need for modern education technologies in the sports-centered physical education to step up the physical activity and physical fitness rates in the optional academic sport service.