Mass academic sport system improvement model to promote physical activity among students

PhD, Associate Professor O.S. Krasnikova1
PhD, Associate Professor L.G. Pashchenko1
PhD, Associate Professor S.A. Davydova1
1Nizhnevartovsk State University, Nizhnevartovsk

Keywords: mass sport events, physical activation, physical education and sport service model, academic sports.

Background. The national academic system is expected to secure the flow of highly competent and skilled human resource to the national economy for sustainable progress. The national employers expect the young specialists to be not only knowledgeable and skillful but also active, determined and motivated for success, with all these qualities largely formed by the academic physical education and sport service [4]. Many policy documents approved by the governmental and Presidential decrees emphasize the importance of student sports and physical activity.
Modern academic physical education and sport service driven by conscientious and natural motivations for physical activity forms a basis for individual progress and development in every aspect [3] including physicality, moral and volitional qualities, healthy lifestyle and patriotism. The national academic physical education and sport service gives a high priority to mass student sports at every education establishment [2] albeit progress of the mass academic sport movements is still largely limited by the physical inactivity of the student population and poor motivations for the academic sport festivals, competitions and events [5].
Competitive spirit as the key element of the mass sports cannot be underestimated in their advancement efforts, with a special priority need to be given to the motivational side of the physical education and sport service and mass student sports [6] and new physical education and sport models to attract the student communities to the mass physical education and sport events as the core element of the healthy lifestyle cultivation initiatives.
Objective of the study was to devleop and test benefits of a new academic physical education and sport service model with a special emphasis on the student physical education and sport motivations.
Methods and structure of the study. The study and the new model testing experiment were run at Nizhnevartovsk State University in September 2016 to May 2018. Sampled for the study were the 1-3-year NSU students (n=362 including 139 males and 223 females) trained in the academic optional volleyball, basketball, mini football, athletic gymnastics, swimming, dancing, martial arts and mountaineering groups. The study applied analysis of the relevant study reports, questionnaire surveys and physical education and sport service modeling tools, with the students’ motivations probed by a physical education and sport Motivations Rating Questionnaire form.
Results and discussion. As provided by R.S. Danilov, competitive progress is normally driven by the motivations for leadership, win, game and fair contest [3]; and a special attention in the studies of leadership in physical education and sport groups has been always given to the success-centered values, priorities and motivations [1]. The tests found the highest physical education and sport motivations in the volleyball and futsal men’s groups and the combat sport, aerobics and athletic gymnastics women’s groups; with the lowest physical education and sport motivations tested in the basketball groups, both males and females, and with the sporting students generally tested with the higher physical education and sport motivations than their unsporting peers. The ‘competitive spirit’ tests (with the competitive spirit defined as the zeal to compete in the sport events and festivals) found insignificant differences across the gender and sport groups. Rated highest on this scale were the women’s aerobics, bodybuilding and combat sports groups; and rated lowest were the women’s swimming and dancing groups. The men’s group motivations showed insignificant intergroup differences varying around the average values. Gaming and entertainment aspects of the physical education and sport activity were found most important for the men’s volleyball and women’s volleyball and combat sports groups. Tested lowest on this scale were the women’s swimming and dancing sport groups. A comparative analysis of the age-specific motivations showed progress with age (by the 3rd year) in the leadership, game and self-perfection related motivations in the men’s groups, with no progress in these motivations found in the women’s groups with age. On the whole, the sporting students were tested with the higher dominance, competition, game and fun motivations than their unsporting peers.
Having analyzed the competitive reports of the student mass physical education and sport events, we found the actively sporting student groups making up 16-20% of the total full-time student population. We believe that one of the efficient ways to activate the university students in the physical education and sport domain is to design the mass physical education and sport events on an interests-sensitive (human factor respecting) basis to cater for the actual interests of the student teams/ groups on the whole and individual agendas in particular.
The study data and analyses were used to design a new academic physical education and sport service model with a special emphasis on the physical education and sport motivations including the competitive ones. The model was largely based on the practical findings of the prior studies and popular modern mass student sports formats, with a special priority to the modern competitions including the individual (with the progress self-rates), individual (with the progress self-rating versus the others’ progress rates) and group/ team competitions. Objective of the new model was to activate students and motivate them for the academic physical education and sport service and mass sport events, with a special emphasis on the principles of a conscientious choice, activation, optional sport formats and habitual physical education and sport practices sensitive to the individual health/ physical education and sport agendas.
Every physical education and sport component offers a variety of individual and group/ team competitive events. Thus the NSU physical education and sport system offers an obligatory university Beginner Student Festival for team sport competitions and Leaders’ School event for individual competitions. The students predisposed to the individual progress agendas were offered master classes in new fitness sports with a special priority to the health, developmental and educational aspects.
The mass team sports are being facilitated by many NSU sport initiatives including the Street Games, Army Games, Merry Starts and National Games events. The individual academic sports are promoted by the Ski Track for All and some events in the National Games program; plus the mass student sports are facilitated by the regular GTO Complex tests. Student groups with good competitive accomplishments and sporting experiences compete in the advanced sport events including the Club Tournament, University Festival, and ASSC Championship, with such events normally sponsored by the regional and federal governments, with only the highly qualified academic athletes invited.
The new academic physical education and sport service model implies the pre-training and progress tests to rate the students functionality, physicality and physical education and sport motivations. The students’ contributions (as supporters, organizers, referees, service personnel and competitors) and accomplishments in the above mass physical education and sport / health events are rated by points on the relevant scales, with the individual competitive accomplishments scored the highest on these scales. The new academic physical education and sport service model was tested beneficial as verified by the growth in the popularity of the academic mass physical education and sport / health individual/ team events.
Conclusion. The new academic physical education and sport service model was tested beneficial as verified by the growth in the popularity of the academic mass physical education and sport / health individual/ team events to complement the regualr academic physical education and sports system and activate interest of the student community in the academic sports and competitions.

References

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Corresponding author: korichko_nv@mail.ru

Abstract
The national academic system is expected to secure the flow of highly competent and skilled human resource to the national economy for sustainable progress. The study was designed to survey the students’ motivations (including the competitive ones) for the academic physical education and sport practices; and use the survey data to develop a mass academic sport system improvement model to physically activate the students. Sampled for the study were the optionally sporting students (n=362), with their physical education and sport motivations basically classified into the ‘leadership’, ‘competitiveness’, and ‘fun and recreation by physical education and sport tools’. The highest physical education and sport motivations were found in the volleyball and futsal men’s groups and the combat sport, aerobics and athletic gymnastics women’s groups; with the sporting students generally tested with the higher physical education and sport motivations than their unsporting peers. In view of the wide variability of the motivations survey data and the low commitment of the students for the university sport service and events, the authors worked out the new mass academic sport system improvement model to physically activate students. The model includes the physical education / health, mass sports and optional sport components with their own competitive formats (individual, couple, group and team ones). The mass academic sport system improvement model was found beneficial as verified by the improved physical activity rates.