Dr.Hab., Professor S.M. Ashkinazi1
Dr.Hab., Associate Professor V.A. Islamov2
PhD A.V. Malyshko2
Adjunct P.A. Kuzin2
1Lesgaft National State University of Physical Education, Sport and Health, St. Petersburg
2Military Institute of Physical Training, St. Petersburg
Keywords: Ministry of Defense’s general education system, competitive martial arts, service hand-to-hand combat, hand-to-hand combat theory and training methods.
Background. Presently the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (referred to herein as MDRF) operates 29 education establishments that train young people for entrance examinations at military service academies; cultivate patriotism and secure high intellectual, cultural, mental and physical fitness for the service . Modern competitive martial arts are increasingly popular for the effective physical progress and cultural tools they offer to young people [1, 4, 5]. It has been demonstrated by many studies that modern service hand-to-hand combat sports cultivate courage, determination, insistence and many other personality qualities critical for a military service [3, 2] and motivations . That is the reason why the valid Physical Training Instructions  includes the martial arts and service hand-to-hand combat section.
Objective of the study was to provide a theoretical basis for and offer a new Martial Arts and Service Hand-to-Hand Combat training model for the educational system of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.
Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation ES cadets split up into Experimental Group (n=82) and Reference Group (n=90). For the purposes of the study we analyzed the available literature on the service hand-to-hand combat theory and practice; competitive bout videos; run a questionnaire survey; rated physical development, physical fitness and performance of the sample by the relevant physical fitness and psychophysical status tests, movement control and coordination qualities tests by experts; martial arts and service hand-to-hand combat mastery rating tests; an educational experiment to rate the new training model efficiency; and a standard statistical data processing toolkit.
Results and discussion. Having analyzed the martial arts and service hand-to-hand combat section of the valid Physical Training Instructions  we found the following contradictions in the training system:
- The martial arts and service hand-to-hand combat skills listed as the training process goals in the valid Physical Training Instructions are non-customizable to their age and fitness groups;
- The martial arts and service hand-to-hand combat skills are dominated by wrestling (sambo) techniques although they should rather prioritize, in our opinion, modern kicking and punching techniques otherwise the trainees’ combat mastery is too limited and one-sided;
- The existing mental conditioning for success in the hand-to-hand find is deficient since the trainees are not fit for attack and defense in the kicking/ punching component; and
- The expected martial arts and service hand-to-hand combat mastery levels deemed to be secured by the valid Physical Training Instructions are too ambitious in fact and, hence, the trainees can hardly cope with them or their actual training quality appears too far from the set standards.
As far as the efficiency and accessibility of the techniques covered by the valid Physical Training Instructions is concerned, it should be emphasized that the service hand-to-hand combat provides an excellent testing ground for a variety of modern martial arts techniques. Knowing the age groups of the trainees in the educational system of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and health safety standards, only the service hand-to-hand combat toolkit and modern training models make it possible for the trainees to master highly effective and versatile full-contact combat skills.
The new martial arts and service hand-to-hand combat training model piloted in the educational system of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation was found beneficial as verified by the significant (p≤0.05) progress of the EG versus RG in the mental and physical progress and nervous system mobility rating tests. As a result, the training model was found beneficial for the martial arts and service hand-to-hand combat trainings in the system. Thus the punching/ kicking accuracy and the relevant movement controls, coordination skills and agility rates in the EG were tested significantly higher. It should be emphasized that the standard physical development, physical fitness and performance tests showed insignificant intergroup differences that means that the benefits of the new training model are additional to those of the standard training system.
The final martial arts and service hand-to-hand combat skills tests showed the EG skills being significantly (p≤0.05) higher than in the RG both in the standard and unexpectedly varied fight situations – that may be interpreted as the better quality of the training and high sustainability of the mastered fight techniques and tactics.
- The training systems regulated by the martial arts and service hand-to-hand combat section of the valid Physical Training Instructions fail to cultivate the efficient hand-to-hand fighting skills in the trainees since the Physical Training Instructions largely neglects the punching-and-kicking skills in the pre-conscript standard technical training toolkit.
- The martial arts and service hand-to-hand combat section should be complemented by the most effective and accessible wrestling, kicking and punching techniques to secure a versatile technical toolkit for the trainees that may be further excelled by the off-class martial arts practices and competitions.
- The new martial arts and service hand-to-hand combat training system giving a high priority to the kicking and punching skills and effective service hand-to-hand combat techniques including special wrestling skills customizable to the trainee’s age and fitness groups will be more efficient than the existing training system dominated by traditional sambo techniques.
- Aritkulov A.Kh. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie usloviya formirovaniya voinskoy napravlennosti u shkolnikov v protsesse zanyatiy armeyskim rukopashnym boem [Psychological and pedagogical conditions of formation of military orientation among schoolchildren in hand-to-hand combat training process]. PhD diss. abstr. St. Petersburg, 2003. 24 p.
- Ashkinazi S.M. Edinoborstva v mire sportivnoy nauki [Martial Arts in sport science]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2015. # 11. P. 38.
- Ashkinazi S.M., Marshchuk V.L. [ed.] Voprosy teorii i praktiki rukopashnogo boya v Vooruzhennykh silakh RF [Questions of theory and practice of hand-to-hand combat in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation]. St. Petersburg: MIPC publ., 2001. 242 p.
- Matusov D.V.PhD thesis on special topic. St. Petersburg, 1996.
- Pilnik Ya.L. Nachalnaya podgotovka detey (9-11 let) po armeyskomu rukopashnomu boyu pri sportivnoy sektsii v usloviyakh voennogo garnizona [Beginner hand-to-hand combat training of children (9-11 years old) in military station sports section]. PhD diss. abstr. St. Petersburg, 2007. 21 p.
- Prikaz ministra oboronyi Rossiyskoy Federatsii 2004 g. # 352 «Ob utverzhdenii Nastavleniya po fizicheskoy podgotovke i sportu dlya suvorovskikh voennykh, nakhimovskikh voenno-morskikh, voenno-muzykalnykh uchilishch i kadetskikh, morskikh kadetskikh, muzyikalnykh kadetskikh korpusov Ministerstva oborony Rossiyskoy Federatsii» [Order of the RF Minister of Defense 2004 No. 352 “On approval of the Manual on physical training and sports for the Suvorov military, Nakhimov naval, military music schools and cadet, naval cadet, music cadet corps of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation”]. M., 2004. 93 p.
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Combat sports are commonly in high priority nowadays in the youth physical training, sport excellence and cultural systems. The article summarizes findings of a few theoretical and experimental studies (2015-19) geared to improve the education policies and practices for the Service Hand-to-Hand Combat discipline in the Russia’s Ministry of Defense’s general education system. Our analysis of the education theory and practice showed that the valid Physical Training Instructions fail to secure due unarmed combat skills for the reason that they lack provisions for the punching-and-kicking skills in the pre-conscript standard technical training toolkit. We recommend that the Service Hand-to-Hand Combat program should be complemented with basics of the most efficient and accessible wrestling, punching and kicking skills to secure the standard technical toolkit; and with the potential resource of the off-class practices being objectively analyzed for this purpose. It was found by an experiment that the Service Hand-to-Hand Combat discipline complemented by the basic age-specific efficient and accessible wrestling, punching and kicking trainings – is more efficient than the traditional sambo-driven training program.