Training workload controls applicable in elite women's volleyball

Dr.Hab., Dr. Phys. Ed. Sports, Professor I.G. Maksimenko1, 2
Dr.Hab., Professor G.N. Maksimenko3
L.V. Zilina1
D.N. Bayeva1
1Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod
2Voronezh State Institute of Physical Culture, Voronezh
3National Agricultural University of Lugansk, Lugansk

 

Keywords: training workload, control, energy cost, heart rate, trainings.

 

Background. Training system excellence issues are ranked among the top priorities by every modern sport discipline including volleyball [1, 2]. As demonstrated by the recent study reports, training systems worldwide have come to the following training process design and management trends: (a) training systems of the national teams and leading club teams are about the same in the training workloads and intensities that are close to the biological limits; (b) elite training systems for men and women in the specific and unspecific fitness components are indiscriminant i.e. non-individualized for the players’ fitness levels and natural differences; and (c) meso- and micro-cycles in the women’s team trainings are not always sensitive to the individual bodily responses to the heavy workloads, particularly in menstrual days [1, 4]. These considerations urged us to run the study of the training workloads control in elite women’s volleyball.

Objective of the study was to experimentally prove benefits of an informative and dependable tests and training workload control methods for application in elite women’s volleyball.

Methods and structure of the study. We used for the purposes of the study the following methods: theoretical analysis; training process monitoring; functionality tests including HR tests and energy cost rating tests by Polar Team System; quasi-stationary cortical activity tests; biomedical tests; and statistical data processing toolkit. Sampled for the study were with 19 elite players including 1 World Class Master of Sport; 5 Masters of Sport and 13 Candidate Masters of Sport. We tested urea in blood [4, 5] (sampled from finger on an empty stomach in the morning); and quasi-stationary potential of the cerebral cortex [1]; and monitored the training process to rate the low, moderate and high training loads using the V.P. Filin [1, 3, 4] classification system. We also tested the heart rates (HR, beats per min) and energy costs (kcal), i.e. the pulse and energy demand, of every training session. The Polar Team System made it possible to read the HR every 5s for 12 hours in 10 players simultaneously to fix lows, peaks, mediums and averages in the HR profiles. Energy costs we computed by the Polar Team System software on the following inputs: sport discipline, age, body length, body mass, maximal oxygen demand (VO2 max), resting HR and maximal HR (HR max). The VO2 max was rated by the Polar-Team-System-controlled cycle ergometer Fit-tests, with the test data processed by the system software.

Results and discussion. The test data (see Table 1 hereunder) and analysis showed the following. The HR and energy cost profiles were unsurprisingly found dependent on the training workloads and goals. Thus the special speed and technical and tactical skills excellence high/ moderate/ low load trainings were found to claim the pulse costs of 13,577.8 bpm, 11,705.9 bpm and 9,603.5 bpm and energy costs of 1,118.9 kcal, 867.3 kcal and 585.8 kcal, respectively, with the HR and energy costs found sensitive rather to the workloads than goals of the training process.

Furthermore, the bodily responses to the same training sessions were found widely different. Thus a 32-year-old MS with 16-year sport record was tested with the moderate-level pulse and energy costs of 1,1927 bpm and |898.2 kcal – versus the 18 year-old MS with the sport record of 6 years who was tested with the high-level costs of 14,241 bpm and 1,229 kcal in the same training session. We also found that two medium-load training sessions per day effectively amount to one high-load training for the young players with 5-6-year sport experiences.

 

Table 1. HR and energy cost test data classified by the training process goals and loads

 

 

 

 

Training session goal

Pulse cost (bpm) versus loads 

Energy cost (kcal) versus loads

High load

{C}

{C}

± m

Moderate load

{C}

{C}

± m

Low load

{C}

{C}

± m

High load

{C}

{C}

± m

Moderate load

{C}

{C}

± m

Low load

{C}

{C}

± m

1

Special speed and technical and tactical skills

13577,8±19,5

11705,9±19,9

9603,5±18,7

1118,9±7,11

867,3±6,03

585,8±5,87

2

Speed strength and technical and tactical skills |

13499,7±18,6

11773,1±18,9

9597,8±19,1

1120,4±6,94

869,7±5,96

594,1±5,44

3

All-round and special endurance and technical and tactical skills

13676,4±19,8

11799,5±19,4

9675,3±18,8

1131,5±7,05

876,6±6,28

605,2±5,69

4

Technical and tactical skills excellence

13596,2±20,1

11698,6±20,3

9601,4±18,5

1115,3±6,83

858,7±6,15

590,6±5,88

5

Game practice

13515,6±19,9

11705,3±18,7

9618,9±18,4

1101,1±6,34

849,8±6,07

581,5±5,91

 

Conclusion. The test and performance control method was found highly informative, dependable and efficient and therefore may be recommended for the training system quality improvements in the training micro- and meso-cycles. Particularly beneficial in the test array were found the HR variation and energy cost tests to rate effects of the training workloads on elite female players.

The study once again demonstrated that the training systems need to be individualized, with the teamwork technical and tactical skills excellence trainings followed by individual trainings customized to the actual fitness aspects, ages, sporting experiences, rehabilitation demands, menstrual cycles etc. of every player. Further studies of that kind are recommended for other high-intensity women’s sports including women’s football.

 

References

  1. Maksimenko I.G., Bugaev G.V., Kadurin V.V., Sysoev A.V. Sportivnye igry: sistema mnogoletney podgotovki yunyih sportsmenov [Active Games: long-term training system for  junior athletes]. 2nd ed,rev., sup.. Voronezh: RITM, 2016. 424 p.

  2. Maksimenko I.G., Voronkov A.V., Zhilina L.V. Sravnitelny analiz osobennostey mnogoletney podgotovki yunykh sportsmenov v igrovykh i tsiklicheskikh vidakh sporta [Comparative analysis of peculiarities of long-term training in youth competitive and cyclic sports]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2016, no. 1, pp. 11–13.

  3. Maksimenko I.G. , Voronin I.Yu., Spirin M.P., Rutskoy I.A. Kontrol tekhnicheskoy podgotovlennosti futbolistok razlichnoy kvalifikatsii [Female footballers' technical fitness tests for different skill levels]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2017. no.6. pp. 73–74.

  4. Platonov V.N. Sistema podgotovki sportsmenov v olimpiyskom sporte. Obshchaya teoriya i ee prakticheskie prilozheniya [Sports training system in Olympic sport. General theory and its practical applications]. Kiev: Olimp. lit., 2015, book 1, 2015, 680 p.

  5. Bompa T.O.,  Haff G.G. Periodization: Theory and methodology of training [5-th Edition]. Champaign, IL, USA: Human Kinetics, 2009. 280 p.

 

Corresponding author: maksimenko76@mail.ru

 

Abstract

Training system excellence issues are ranked among the top priorities by every modern sport discipline including volleyball. Objective of the study was to experimentally prove benefits of an informative and dependable tests and training workload control methods for application in elite women’s volleyball. Sampled for the study were with 19 elite players whose performance was tested and analyzed by the following methods: theoretical analysis; training process monitoring; functionality tests including the HR tests, energy cost tests by Polar Team System; quasi-stationary cortical activity tests; biomedical tests; and statistical data processing toolkit. The test and performance control method was found highly informative, dependable and efficient and therefore may be recommended for the training system quality improvements in the training micro- and meso-cycles. Particularly beneficial in the test array were found the HR variation and energy cost tests to rate effects of the training workloads on elite women players.