Practices with standard and slanting bars: arm muscle fatigue profiling study

PhD A.A. Zakharov1
PhD E.P. Kudrin1
E.V. Bubyakina1
1M.K. Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk

Keywords: mas-wrestling, strength, arm muscles, fatigue, dynamometry.

Background. Many reputable physical education and sports experts recommend special technical tools and simulators modeling the sports-specific performances to improve efficiency of training systems [8, 10]. The modern mas-wrestling sport is no exclusion with its training systems being actively enriched by modern technical tools to improve the physical, technical and tactical fitness components [6, 9]. We have analyzed the national patents with concern to mas-wrestling and found only 14 copyright protection documents as of 2018. The new patented designs were found dominated by the training machines and other training/ competitive equipment and accessories plus minor developments for industrial production including new sport outfits [4]. Many researchers appreciate benefits of modern arm strength and endurance training tools and machines [1, 5, 11] including special weights, traditional dumbbells and kettlebells, bars etc. – conditional on the new equipment being compliant with the valid requirements and standards for the sport disciplines. It is always mentioned that even the simple and best training tools, when misused, may be either useless or even detrimental for the physical fitness and technical progress [7, 8].

Our prior research of the mas-wrestling sport-specific performances found the stick pitching angles widely varying in the actual bouts; and the atheltes were recommended to master the versatile technicalities, tactics and physical skills to effecitvely control the fight regardless of the stick pitch angle [2]. It was found among other things that a 30 degree pitch may significantly reduce the maximal strength and a 40 degree pitch may heavily limit the strength endurance [3]. This was the reason for us to analyze the performances and offer the practical solutions to improve the wrestler’s arm strength and endurance by a few non-standard training tools. We developed a few special arm training tools including special slanted bars with varied bents.

Objective of the study was to test and analyze the local arm muscle fatigue test rates in exercises on standard and slanted bars.

Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were young healthy (main health group) male students of North-Eastern Federal University (n=29) trained in the academic physical education groups twice a week and having no other sporting practices or physical activity. The sample was 19.9±2.8 years old, 176±5.6cm tall and weighted in 68.6±8.2kg and 68.4±7.8kg on average in the first and second tests, respectively.

In the tests the students were required to execute the one-hand (dominant hand) suspension till refusal on the both bars. Prior to and after the tests the arm strength was tested by a wrist dynamometer KD-100 (made in Russia). In the first test, the students executed suspensions on a 32mm thick standard bar. The second test was run 72 hours after the first one, with the students executing suspensions on a 32mm thick slanted bar (see Figure 1 hereunder), with the little finger being higher than the index finger in the grip.

Figure 1. Slanted bar

Prior to the tests the students run the 10min warm-up jogging and physical conditioning practices and applied magnesia to prevent hand slipping on the bar. The tests were designed to produce the following test rates: WDpret – pre-test wrist dynamometry rate; WDpost – post-test WD rate; AFR – arm fatigue test rate; and ST – till-refusal suspension time. The AFR was computed as follows:

%                                      (1)

The test data were processed to produce the mean arithmetic value (Mean) and standard deviation (SD), with the comparative analysis and difference meanings analyzed using the Student t-criterion. Differences of the test data arrays were qualified signficant at 95% probability (р<0.05).

Results and discussion. Given in Table 1 hereunder is the analysis of the test rates.

Table 1. WD, AFR and ST rates in the standard and slanted bar suspension tests

Bar

WDpret, daN,

Mean± SD

WDpost, daN,

Mean± SD

AFR,

Mean ± SD

ST, seconds,

Mean± SD

STB

44,9±5,7

33,5±5,1

24,6±12,9

46,1±18,2

SLB

45,4±5,5

37,2±4,7

17,4±9,9

25,8±13,7

p

>0,05

<0,05

<0,05

<0,05

It should be mentioned that the differences in the WDpret rates were statistically insignificant (p>0.05); whilst the differences in the WDpost rates were significant (p<0,05) for the standard versus slanted bar tests. The arm fatigue test rates (AFR) and suspension time (ST) rates were better in the slanted bar practices (p<0.05), with the one-hand slanted bar suspensions found less stressful and associated with the lower fatigue rates than the standard bar ones.

Conclusion. It was found that the slanted bar exercises train the key fingers in contrast to the standard bar ones, with variations in the slanted bar pitch angles giving the means to efficiently manage the training process and delay fatigue in the submaximal training practices. The lower fatigue in the slanted bar practices made it possible to rehabilitate the arm muscles more effectively and step up the training process workload and efficiency with more muscular fibers being engaged. The proposed slanted bar exercises customizable to the practical goals of the training process were found highly beneficial for the arm muscle trainings with an emphasis on the strength and fatigue tolerance building components.

References

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Corresponding author: alalza@mail.ru

Abstract

Many physical education and sport experts rank new technical tools and training systems – that mimic as close as possible the competitive performance – among the most promising ways to improve the training process efficiency. Objective of the study was to analyze the local arm muscle fatigue in exercises on standard and slanted bars (STB, SLB, respectively). Sampled for the study were the young university students (n=29) who were required to execute the one-hand suspension till refusal on the both bars. It was found that the slanted bar exercises train the key fingers in contrast to the standard bar ones, with variations in the slanted bar pitch angles giving the means to efficiently manage the training process and delay fatigue in the submaximal training practices. The lower fatigue in the slanted bar practices made it possible to rehabilitate the arm muscles more effectively and step up the training process workload and efficiency with more muscular fibers being engaged. The proposed slanted bar exercises customizable to the practical goals of the training process were found highly beneficial for the arm muscle trainings with an emphasis on the strength and fatigue tolerance building components.