Benefits of active ethnic Evenk games for physical education of senior preschoolers

PhD, Associate Professor N.A. Vinokurova1
M.V. Danilov1
A.G. Barakhsina1
1Institute of Physical Culture and Sport of M.K. Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk

Keywords: senior preschoolers’ physical education, active Evenk games and sports.

Background. Traditional ethnic games [2, 3] are respected as one of the most efficient physical education tools by many nations including Evenks – who are known to appreciate and protect the historical children’s sports and competitions. These games are known to effectively train children for the life challenges and develop the key qualities of hunter, reindeer herder and fur farmer. Most of the children's games effectively test and build up the running, skiing, arching, lasso throwing and other skills critical for success in the traditional everyday life. Basically, the Evenk children’s games mimic movements of animals, predators and birds as demonstrated by the game names: Act as Bear, Act as Deer, Falcon and Ducks, Deer and Wolves, Lasso Games etc.

An ethnic game may be described as the focused motor activity driven by emotions, fun and physical skills to attain some goal. The ethnic games offer great benefits for physical education in every domain including mental, physical and spiritual progress; and it is very important that such games are always emotional, pleasant and satisfying for the children [1, p.29, 30]. Ethnic games deserve being given a highest priority due to their developmental benefits as they train both physical and many mental qualities including attention, memory, concentration, self-controls, willpower and endurance [4, p.3]. Such games offer special benefits for the preschoolers in the physical fitness, morbidity and developmental disorders prevention aspects.

It is through games that children develop their motor skills while running, jumping, climbing, throwing, etc. Multiple movements activate respiration, blood circulation and metabolic processes and bring many benefits for the psychophysical performance and controls. Health benefits are particularly great for the outdoor games. Popular active and creative games give great freedom of expression to children with their versatile physical activity formats including the self-controlled ones. The greatest benefit of an ethnic game is the fun and emotional uplift it brings. Such active games are more beneficial than any form of indoor physical education for a growing organism as they cater for the natural physical and emotional needs and facilitate physical and mental progress on a most harmonic basis.

Objective of the study was to experimentally rate benefits of the active ethnic Evenk games for senior preschoolers’ physical education.

Methods and structure of the study. We used questionnaire surveys, interviews, discussions, traditional physical fitness tests and mathematical statistics data processing tools for the purposes of the study. The experiment was designed to complement the preschool physical education program with elements of traditional Evenk active games and rate the group physical progress by the pre- versus post-experimental physical fitness tests. The Experimental and Reference Group (EG, RG) physical education motivations and interests in the Evenk ethnic active games were rated by experts in the training and education process.

The study yielded objective experimental data to rate benefits of the Evenk active games for the children’s physical education motivations. The experiment proved benefits of the Evenk games basics mastering model as verified by the faster physical progress of the Experimental Group in the physical fitness and physical health domains; and made it possible to offer the Evenk games basics mastering model to complement the preschool physical education programs.

Results and discussion. The preschoolers’ Experimental Group / Reference Group pre- versus post experimental physical fitness tests yielded the following data: see Table 1.

Table 1. Pre- versus post-experimental physical fitness test data, м±m

Tests

RG (n=5)

EG (n=5)

Pre-exp.

Post-exp.

Pre-exp.

Post-exp.

30m sprint, s

0,00 ±4,11

7,10±3,67

8,10±3,67

8,50±3,67

3х10m shuttle sprint, с

10,00±4,47

11,40±5,01

10,10±4,52

11,20±4,87

120m run, min

7,00±3,58

8,00±4,02

7,50±3,58

9,00±4,02

Standing long jump, cm

88,00±40,70

111,50±60,37

110,0±44,72

122,00±60,37

Rope jumps

6,50±4,02

12.50±4,92

12,00±7,16

20,00±11,18

Stuffed ball throws

1,41±0,59

3,28±1,54

1,64±0,67

4,28±1,74

200g bag throw

4,46±3,20

9,00±3,35

5,59±3,20

9,80±3,80

Flexibility

8,00±2,24

11,00±2,24

10,50±8,05

11,50±9,39

The pre-experimental group tests showed underdevelopments in the speed-strength, endurance and strength qualities and this was the reason for us to offer this physical qualities development model with the Evenk ethnic active game basics including: Who Pulls Harder, Catch the Deer, Cell Jumps, Act as a Bear, Catch up, Circle, Leap, Repossess the Ball, Who Throws the Stone Further, Pike and Fish, Hunters and Partridges, Run, Hide and Seek, Swamp Woman, Bear and Berry Fields, One-leg Race etc.

The Evenk games basics mastering model design gave a top priority to the game accessibility, consistency, regularity and customizability to the individual needs and qualities of the children, with every game taking 15-20 min to secure good progress in the physical qualities and skills. The pre- versus post experimental tests showed benefits of the Evenk games basics mastering model as verified by the significant progress of both groups in the standing long jump test (111,50±60,37 and 122,00±60,37). The physical fitness rates were tested to improve in both of the groups, although the Experimental Group showed the faster progress rates.

Conclusion. The study data and analyses showed benefits of the special Evenk games basics mastering model as verified by physical progress of the Experimental Group. The model applied the most efficient tools with basics of the traditional Evenk games and sports including the folk active games, national competitions and folk dances. The active game/ sport practices were found to activate the breathing, blood circulation and metabolic processes and thereby facilitate the mental progress and mental conditioning skills plus the volitional qualities (including discipline, resilience under stresses, insistence, courage, team spirit etc.) formation and reinforcement.

References

  1. Vinokurova N.A. Motivating girls for physical education by means of ethnopedagogy (case study of Arctic schools of Sakha Republic (Yakutia). PhD diss. abstr.. Yakutsk, 2007.pp. 29-30.
  2. Danilov D.A., Cherkashin I.A. Organizational educational support for integration of physical and spiritual education of young men in the ethnocultural space. Yakutsk: SVFU, 2010. 247 p.
  3. Maynov I.I. Some data about the Tungus of the Yakut region: 3 tables, 1 phototyping and 1 zincography. Irkutsk, 1986. 245 p. (Works of East-Siberian Department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society; Vol. 2).
  4. Maksimova O.A. Evenk games and competitions for pupils of national school of indigenous people of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Yakutsk, 2007. 69 p.
  5. Neustroev N.D. Ethno-pedagogics of peoples of the North. Study guide for special course for teachers of schools of indigenous peoples of the North. Yakutsk, 1999, 140 p.
  6. Platonov D.N., Platonova L.L., Cherkashin I.A. Formation of strategy of development of regional system of continuous physical culture education. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2015, no. 10, pp. 3-4.
  7. Shebeko V.N. Theory and methods of preschool physical education. Study guide for university students. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola publ., 2010, 400 p.

Abstract

Traditional ethnic games are respected as one of the most efficient physical education tools by many nations including Evenks – who are known to appreciate and protect the historical children’s sports and competitions. Objective of the study was to experimentally rate benefits of the active ethnic Evenk games for physical education of senior preschoolers. We used questionnaire surveys, interviews, discussions, traditional physical fitness tests and mathematical statistics data processing tools for the purposes of the study. The experiment was designed to complement the preschool physical education program with elements of traditional Evenk active games and rate the group physical progress by the pre- versus post-experimental physical fitness tests.

The study data and analyses showed benefits of the Evenk games basics mastering model as verified by the physical progress of the Experimental Group. The model applied the most efficient tools with basics of the traditional Evenk games and sports including the folk active games, national competitions and folk dances. The active game/ sport practices were found to activate breathing, blood circulation and metabolic processes and thereby facilitate the mental progress and mental conditioning skills plus the volitional qualities (including discipline, resilience under stresses, insistence, courage, team spirit etc.) formation and reinforcement.