PhD, Associate Professor O.I. Kayasheva1, 2
Dr.Sc.Psych., Professor Z.G. Khanova3
PhD, Associate Professor N.N. Kazieva4
1Russian University of Transport (MIIT), Moscow
2Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow
3Moscow University of Industry and Finance "Synergy", Moscow
4Dagestan State University, Makhachkala
5Ingush State University, Magas
Keywords: personality reflection, physical Self image, socio-psychological maturity, sport activity.
Background. Reflection is in special priority in the educational process, with the personality reflection as one of its key components ranked among the self-analyzing tool to effectively overview own mentality and progress and facilitate the socio-psychological maturing process. The structure of personality reflection includes physical Self image, which is based on interiorization of the ideas about the subject and his own look, people that matter most. The interiorization of the parameters of physical Self is directly related to attributing of students to reference sports groups, where a healthy lifestyle and development of psychophysical qualities of students (strength, endurance, flexibility, etc.) are encouraged [1, 6, 7].
With aging, the human body remains a physical mechanism; however, the origination of a "cultural body" leads to a mismatch between the natural and cultural body boundaries, which opens up "new possibilities and space for "cultural pathology". Communication restrictions result in alienation from one's own body, development of conversion disorders . Engagement with the real world and feeling a part of it are only possible through the body.
At student age, the physical Self image is primarily seen as a specific social phenomenon, including the criteria of visual appeal. Nevertheless, the physical Self image is represented by two plans - external (anatomical, physiological and social characteristics that make up the visual appeal) and internal (health as a qualitative characteristic of the physical Self image) . Man’s adaptation to social demands results in various changes in appearance through various cosmetic procedures, in some cases, medical intervention.
The formation of the physical Self image is affected by other people’s assessment and opinion . We assume that attributing to sports reference groups contributes to the development of a positive physical Self image in students [2, 8].
A mature person is a person characterized by high adaptability, lack of conformism and psychological dependence on other people, but at the same time ready for intense and lasting relationships, having high levels of self-development [3, 4] and personality reflection . Maturity is a multifaceted psychological category that includes socio-psychological maturity. Socio-psychological maturity of a person is considered to be subjective, resulting from the integration of both social and individual components of maturity  and affecting community commitment. Among the socio-psychological maturity criteria are the aspects of the subject’s relations with society (beliefs, attitudes, value-based orientations, social and moral norms, active participation in public life, etc.) and immediate environment (the need to care for others, the need for psychological intimacy with others, self-analysis in terms of interaction with other people, acceptance of responsibility) [2, 4].
Despite the importance and relevance of studying the connection between personality reflection and socio-psychological maturity of university students, this area remains poorly explored.
Objective of the study was to assess the connection between personality reflection and socio-psychological maturity of sporting university students.
Methods and structure of the study. The students were offered to complete a questionnaire aimed to determine the level of self-esteem of physical Self image as one of the personality reflection components, the viability test of S. Muddi (adapted by D.A. Leontiev and E.I. Rasskazova), the modified questionnaire for diagnosis of self-actualization of personality according to A. V. Lazukin (adapted by N. F. Kalina), the "Level of Personality Reflection" test of O.I. Kayasheva. The study was conducted in 2016-2017 at the following Moscow universities: Russian University of Transport (MIIT), Moscow University of Industry and Finance "Synergy", University of the Russian Academy of Education. Sampled for the study were 100 students aged 16 to 20 years majoring in humanities (45 students regularly involved in sports (5 boys and 40 girls) and 55 unsporting students (8 boys and 47 girls). The following mathematical statistics methods were applied: the Mann–Whitney U-test and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient.
Results and discussion. The questionnaire survey revealed the following: 45 students were constantly doing sports (athletics - 33.33%; basketball - 22.22%; football - 15.55%; dancing - 15.55%; martial arts (karate, kickboxing, etc.) - 11.11%; swimming - 6.67%; skateboarding - 2.22%).
Main university sports
88.88% of sporting students and 67.27% of unsporting ones assessed their own look and physical fitness positively. The positive attitude to own look and physical fitness was more characteristic of the sporting students (the differences were statistically significant: Uemp.≤Ucr., Uemp.=880, within the significance zone).
36.36% of unsporting students assessed their overall health and own look negatively (overweight, insufficient or excessive growth, insufficient muscle mass, etc.); 11.11% of sporting students negatively assessed their physical condition mainly (joint pain due to high-intensity training loads, pain due to sprains and various sport-related injuries, additionally noted - fatigue and stress due to the difficulty of combining training with study and/ or work).
The sporting students were more focused on maintaining the general state of health (they monitored their nutrition, visited doctors on a regular basis, etc.). The differences were statistically significant: Uemp.≤Ucr., Uemp.=835, within the significance zone.
The "Level of Personality Reflection" test showed that this level was higher in the sporting students than in the unsporting ones (Uemp.≤Ucr., Uemp.=672, within the significance zone). Personality reflection helps integrate a number of man’s conscious ideas about himself, including the physical Self image, reduces internal conflicts and contributes to the achievement of socio-psychological maturity [1, 2].
The viability test of S. Muddi (adapted by D.A. Leontiev and E.I. Rasskazova) includes the following scales: involvement, self-control, risk taking and resilience. The sporting students demonstrated better results on the involvement (Uemp.≤Ucr., Uemp.=414.5 within the significance zone) and self-control scales (Uemp.≤Ucr., Uemp.=416, within the significance zone). On other scales, no statistically significant differences were observed. The students’ involvement was associated with their active engagement in sports and other activities, assurance that their direct participation in any activity would enable to get major advantages in later life. Self-control was expressed in their conviction that the struggle would influence the results of current developments.
The modified questionnaire for diagnosis of self-actualization of personality enabled to identify significant differences between the sporting and unsporting students on the self-image scale (Uemp.≤Ucr., Uemp.=657.5, within the significance zone); the were no differences on the remaining scales.
Table 1. Correlation between the level of personality reflection and socio-psychological maturity rates
There were statistically significant positive correlations between the level of personality reflection of the sporting students and their socio-psychological maturity rates: self-control (rs=0.35), self-actualization questionnaire scales – time control (rs=0.39), cognitive needs (rs=0.41 ), impulsivity (rs=0.44) (see Table 1). The higher the level of personality reflection in the sporting students, the more active they are, more focused on the present, open to new experiences and self-confident.
Conclusions. Personality reflection, or the ability to understand own qualities, states and place in society, is essential to students. Sporting students have a higher level of personality reflection as compared to unsporting students.
The structure of personality reflection includes physical Self image, which is based on interiorization of the ideas about the subject and his own look, people that matter most. The interiorization of the parameters of physical Self is directly related to the inclusion of students in reference sports groups, where a healthy lifestyle and the development of psychophysical qualities of students (strength, endurance, flexibility, etc.) are encouraged.
A positive physical Self image of students becomes a principal factor in achieving successful socio-psychological maturity. Sporting students are superior to those not doing sports in terms of involvement, self-control and self-understanding.
The university students constantly doing sports were found to have significant positive correlations between the level of personality reflection and socio-psychological maturity rates: self-control, time control, cognitive needs and impulsivity.
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Reflection is in special priority in the educational process, with the personality reflection as one of its key components ranked among the self-analyzing tool to effectively overview own mentality and progress and facilitate the socio-psychological maturing process. The study offers the personality reflection model for academic athletes, with reflection viewed as the complex psychological phenomenon to help shape up the physical Self image and consolidate, differentiate and build up the own self via friendly communication in the reference sport groups. Academic athletes were mostly tested with more positive self-rates of own look and physical fitness than their unsporting peers. Some negativism in the sporting group was mostly due to the physical disorders resulting from sport injuries, overtraining and stressful attempts to effectively combine studies with work and sports. The unsporting student group was tested with more negative self-rates of the own look. The study makes a special emphasis on benefits of the personality reflection with self-analyzes of the own mentality and progress to facilitate the socio-psychological maturing process – as verified by the meaningful correlations between the personality reflection and socio-psychological maturity in academic athletes rated by the self-control, time control, cognitive needs and impulsivity indices.