Respiratory training model to correct cardio-respiratory system disorders

Dr.Hab., Professor V.L. Kondakov1
Dr.Hab., Professor L.N. Voloshina1
PhD, Associate Professor E.N. Kopeykina1
PhD, Associate Professor N.V. Balysheva1
1Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod

Keywords: health, female students, cardio-respiratory system disorders, respiratory practices, breathing gymnastics.

 Introduction. Health problems of young generations are considered increasingly critical by many nations. The number of cardiac, nervous, mental and oncological diseases in the younger generation is constantly growing. Studies show that the total student population with health impairments is now estimated at 40-45%.

Specialists prioritize moderate physical training loads over other regenerative activities for people diagnosed with cardiac diseases. Mostly, they recommend exercises that contribute to the activation of blood circulation: cyclic exercises of aerobic nature and acyclic ones, including breathing gymnastics [3, 4, 6, 7].

The immediacy of the problem is due to the urgent need for the development and scientific substantiation of methodological approaches, techniques, health-improving technologies, targeted to a specific nosological group.

Objective of the study was to assess benefits of a new respiratory training model to correct cardio-respiratory system disorders under the academic physical education curriculum.

Methods and structure of the study. A comparative experiment was conducted in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Sampled for the model testing experiment were the 1-2-year female students (n=61) diagnosed with cardio-respiratory system disorders and split up into Experimental (EG, n=28) and Reference (RG, n=33) Groups. The EG students were trained in compliance with the developed methodology. The RG females attended physical education classes designed by the Physical Education Department for students diagnosed with health problems, irrespective of their nosology. The classes were held according to the academic schedule.

The developed methodology was based on the breathing gymnastics according to A.N. Strelnikova and G. Childers [3, 5, 7-9]. The Buteyko respiratory practices were included in the content of the physical education classes as an additional means to relieve stress and speed up recover after physical loads. The breathing gymnastics was used in conjunction with physical exercises aimed to improve physical development and fitness levels.

The classes were conducted alternately: in the first semester, the first 12 training sessions included respiratory practices according to A.N. Strelnikova, the last 12 sessions – according to G. Childers; in the second semester, these respiratory practices alternated every next session. Recreational swimming was designed for 8 classes and applied twice: in the first semester - between the respiratory practices according to A.N. Strelnikova and G. Childers, and at the beginning of the second semester for the purpose of a smoother increase in load - after the winter break.

Results and discussion. At the beginning and at the end of the experiment, we revealed the differences between the cardiovascular system functionality rates, physical development and fitness levels, somatic health indices in the female students of both groups (Table 1).

The EG females were found to have statistically significant positive changes in terms of most of the cardiovascular system functionality test rates, including the improved myocardial function, oxygenation and aerobic capacities, physical fitness and cardio-respiratory system functions. At the same time, the resting heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, systolic blood volume, Stange’s and Genche’s test rates, as well as the modified Harvard step test rates increased significantly in the EG females as opposed to the RG ones. In RG, no statistically significant changes were observed in terms of the cardiovascular system functionality test rates (Table 1).

Table 1. Cardiovascular system functionality rate, physical development and physical fitness levels in females of EG (n=28) and RG (n=33) before and after experiment

Indicators

Groups

Before

After

р

р

EG-RG

M ± m

M ± m

Resting heart rate (bpm)

EG

81.1±2.51

76.04±1.71

٭

٭٭٭

RG

83.80±2.49

83.07±2.37

 

Blood pressure

 (mmHg)

systolic

EG

112.30±1.45

112.13±0.76

٭٭

 

RG

111.80±1.58

112.53±2.05

 

diastolic

EG

74.37±1.50

74.25±0.67

 

٭٭٭

RG

74.93±1.63

76.33±1.01

 

Tests

Stange (sec)

EG

48.95±2.91

53.13±3.42

 

٭

RG

50.47±2.90

45.54±2.49

 

Genche (sec)

EG

32.49±2.49

41.11±1.68

٭

٭

RG

30.89±1.71

28.98±2.01

 

Ruffier (c.u.)

EG

10.86±1.03

9.91±0.68

٭٭

 

RG

11.49±0.67

11.42±0.71

 

Orthostatic (bpm variance)

EG

23.13±3.87

18.26±3.07

 

 

RG

23.20±2.49

24.18±3.81

 

Index

Kerdo (c.u.)

EG

6.32±3.24

1.27±2.22

 

 

RG

8.340±3.44

6.02±2.80

 

Skibinski

(c.u.)

EG

17.03±1.35

21.12±1.72

٭

 

RG

17.46±1.36

17.07±1.46

 

Blood volume

minute (l/min)

EG

4.64±0.21

4.38±0.12

 

 

RG

4.75±0.18

4.62±0.18

 

systolic (ml)

EG

57.59±1.56

57.53±0.71

٭٭

٭٭٭

RG

56.58±1.44

55.42±1.10

 

Pulse pressure (mmHg)

EG

38.08±1.62

37.88±0.82

٭٭

٭٭

RG

36.87±1.40

36.20±1.76

 

Modified variant of Harvard step test (c.u.)

EG

19.24±0.67

19.38±0.94

 

٭

RG

18.45±0.49

17.75±0.43

٭٭

Body weight (kg)

EG

58.63±1.69

58.06±1.67

 

 

RG

58.35±2.06

57.47±1.78

 

Circumference (cm)

waist

EG

69.54±1.34

68,73±1,35

 

 

RG

69.50±1.65

68,93±1,49

 

hips

EG

96.00±1.20

95,96±1,33

 

 

RG

96.33±1.35

96,40±2,47

 

Chest excursion (cm)

EG

5.10±0.34

5.98±0.35

٭

 

RG

5.60±0.28

5.57±0.30

 

Vital capacity (l)

EG

2.76±0.13

2.97±0.88

٭٭

 

RG

2.84±0.11

3.00±0.12

 

Bends forward on a gymnastic bench (cm)

EG

6.81±1.02

10.85±0.76

٭

٭٭

RG

7.90±0.84

8.77±1.15

٭٭

Dynamometry

(daN)

right hand

EG

22.23±0.80

24,31±1,30

 

 

RG

24.40±0.54

23,50±0,69

 

left hand

EG

22.10±0.99

23,04±1,14

 

 

RG

22.67±0.51

22,50±0,85

 

Push-ups (number of reps)

EG

3.04±0.84

6.50±0.65

٭

٭٭

RG

4.60±0.91

6.23±1.22

٭٭

Romberg’s test (sec)

EG

9.68±1.66

17.96±3.31

٭٭٭

٭

RG

11.66±1.49

10.52±1.27

 

Coordination coefficient

(according to Firileva)

EG

6.82±0.75

3.78±0.20

٭

٭

RG

6.96±0.67

6.38±0.56

 

Note:

٭– significance of differences by the Student t-criterion (р≤0.05)

٭٭ – significance of differences by the Fischer F-criterion (р≤0.05)

٭٭٭ – significance of differences by the Student and Fisher criteria (р≤0.05)

In most of the physical development and fitness test rates, the EG females were found to have more pronounced positive changes than the RG ones. Thus, the thoracic mobility, vital capacity, strength, flexibility, and movement coordination increased significantly in the EG. In the RG, it was strength and flexibility that improved. The final indicators of strength, flexibility, and movement coordination were significantly better in the EG than in the RG (Table 1).

The Apanansenko Somatic Health Tests found significant progress of the EG in 5 tests out of 5: the aerobic capacity and physical working capacity increased, the cardiovascular system response to moderate loads became less pronounced, the overall level of somatic health increased against the background of the above mentioned positive changes increased. In the RG, it was only the aerobic capacity of the body that increased. Moreover, in terms of two indicators characterizing the cardiovascular system functionality level - the aerobic capacity and rate of HR recovery after moderate loads – the EG females were significantly ahead of the RG ones (Table 2).

Table 2. Somatic health rates in females of EG (n=28) and RG (n=33) before and after pedagogical experiment

Indicators

Groups

Before

After

р

р

EG-RG

index

M ± m

points

M ± m

index

M ± m

points

M ± m

Index

Body mass index (Kettle)

EG

17.70±0.50

-1.15±0.18

17.50±0.50

-1.19±0.17

 

 

RG

17.73±0.60

-1.20±0.19

17.43±0.50

-1.20±0.19

 

strength index

EG

62.79±3.84

1.62±0.32

58.43±2.55

1.62±0.26

 

 

RG

63.07±2.10

2.20±0.23

44.40±1.88

0.10±0.24

 

birth-death ratio

EG

48.54±2.95

1.12±0.34

52.08±1.89

1.54±0.29

٭٭

 

RG

49.70±2.31

1.30±0.26

52.10±1.68

1.53±0.27

 

Robinson index

EG

91.30±3.49

0.08±0.23

85.23±1.98

0.31±0.18

٭٭

٭٭٭

RG

93.60±2.90

-0.17±0.19

93.90±3.56

-0.23±0.26

 

Rate of HR recovery after 20 squats for 30 sec (min)

EG

2.05±0.38

1.27±0.40

1.16±0.06

4.0±0.36

٭

٭٭٭

RG

2.00±0.06

1.50±0.45

1.46±0.07

2.40±0.41

 

Total points

EG

2.92±1.48

6.27±1.25

٭

٭

RG

3.63±1.31

2.60±1.35

 

Level of health

EG

low

below average

 

 

RG

below average

low

 

 

Note:

٭– significance of differences by the Student t-criterion (р≤0.05)

٭٭ – significance of differences by the Fischer F-criterion (р≤0.05)

٭٭٭ – significance of differences by the Student and Fischer criteria (р≤0.05)

The theoretical analysis and synthesis of the literature data on the problem of development and scientific substantiation of methodological approaches, techniques, health-improvement technologies, targeted to a specific nosological group, proves the existence of a problem situation [1, 5, 6, 8].

By the beginning of the XXI century, scientists, physicians and specialists in the sphere of physical education described many breathing techniques and their application technologies and are still arguing about the possibilities of using special respiratory practices - about their benefits, neutrality or harm.

Most specialists of today, who have studied the effectiveness of respiratory practices in the health improvement process, adhere to the opinion that it is important to teach a person full breathing and its voluntary regulation [1, 2, 9].

Moreover, special literature contains a large number of experimental studies indicating the benefits of hypoxia [3]. Yet, few experimental evaluations of the hypoxic training systems used during physical training of students were conducted: E.A. Merkulova, F.Kh. Chemodanova established the fact of significant improvement in the body-weight ratio as a result of regular gymnastics exercises “Body flex”; E.N. Varavina et al. successfully applied this technique to increase the female students' stress tolerance and noted such additional effects as improved gas exchange and lung ventilation, spasmolysis of the smooth muscles of the bronchi, improved intestinal motility [7].

Summarizing the above, we therefore may state that our study complements the experimental data obtained earlier. We proved the feasibility of the systematic application of the respiratory training model with its full breathing and interval hypoxic training components during the physical training of students diagnosed with cardio-respiratory system disorders.

Conclusion. The experimental respiratory training model developed for students diagnosed with cardio-respiratory system disorders contributes to positive changes in the cardiovascular system functionality rates, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the overall level of somatic health.

References

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  2. Cernes R., Zimlichman R. (2017). Role of Paced Breathing for Treatment of Hypertension. Current Hypertension Reports, 19(6): 45.
  3. Gorelov A.A., Rumba O.G. (2011). Experience of scientific substantiation of content, methods and orientation of respiratory training in applied and health-improving purposes. Vestnik sportivnoj nauki, 2: 44-49.
  4. Iermakov S.S., Arziutov G.N. & Jagiełło W. (2016). Quick training of students to judo techniques. Archives of Budo, 12, 15-24.
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  7. Kopeikina E.N., Bogoeva M.D., Kondakov V.L., Iermakov S.S., Gorelov A.A., Gruzdeva N.A. (2018). Respiratory gymnastics for students with craniological diseases. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 18(4): 1801 – 1807. doi: 10.7752 / jpes.2018.s4263.
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Corresponding author: nikulin_i@bsu.edu.ru

Abstract

Health problems of young generations are considered increasingly critical by many nations. Objective of the study was to assess benefits of a new respiratory training model to correct cardio-respiratory system disorders under the academic physical education curriculum. Sampled for the model testing experiment were the 1-2-year female students (n=61) diagnosed with cardio-respiratory system disorders and split up into Experimental (EG, n=28) and Reference (RG, n=33) Groups. Both group trainings took 90min 2 times a week – or 136 hours per academic year. The experiment showed benefits of the new respiratory training model as verified by the EG progress in the cardiovascular system functionality test rates including the improved myocardial function, oxygenation and aerobic capacities, physical fitness and cardio-respiratory system functions. The EG was tested with particularly high progress in the physical development and fitness rates including the vital capacity, strength, flexibility and movement coordination test rates. The Apanansenko Somatic Health Tests found meaningful progress of the EG in 5 tests out of 5. Therefore, the respiratory training model with its full breathing and interval hypoxic training components was found beneficial as verified by the EG significant progress in the cardiovascular system functional efficiency, aerobic capacities, tolerance to hypoxia, physical working capacity, tolerance to physical stressors, strength, flexibility, and movement coordination test rates.