Benefits of new physical education specialist education service model

Candidate O.V. Kudryavtseva1
Dr.Biol., Professor V.S. Belyaev1
PhD, Associate Professor M.A. Kaymin1
1Institute of Natural Science and Sports Technologies, Moscow City Pedagogical University, Moscow

Keywords: schoolchildren, basic physical skills, institutional and practical tools, physical education lesson.

Background. Modern social challenges, new Federal State Education Standards (FSES) and the GTO Complex reinstatement project have set new higher requirements to the school physical education service quality. The teacher is expected, first and foremost, to train children on a conscientious basis from the goal setting to practical results, with the physical skill mastering process being designed on an integrated basis i.e. to form the physical skill basics.       
The analysis of the basic physical skill mastering model conducted by a teacher is as necessary as the analysis of the reproduced motor part of the action – a common subject matter of the motor action analysis in the field of physical education and sport. The analysis of the program of orientation actions training based on the main reference points in the internal orientation field is what the works of M.M. Bogen [2] are devoted to. According to numerous authors, the use of the methods of teaching the orientation basis of motor actions significantly increases the effectiveness of training [2-5]. The development of a motor skill, according to M.M. Bogen [2], requires a two-stage formation of the orientation basis of the action. At the first stage, basic physical skills are developed, and here attention is to be focused on the formation of orientation actions within the internal orientation field. Trainees are taught to control all the aspects of own movements in approximately standard situations based on self-assessment of kinesthetic sensations. At the second stage, orientation actions are formed within the external orientation field — accentuation of the main reference points of the motor action, determination of the displacement patterns within the activity field (the most rational trajectories that can ensure accurate motor actions) [2, 3].
Schoolchildren’s focus on the semantic structure of motor activity helps identify the essential signs of the motor action in the context of the motor task [1-3, 6, 7]. Theoretical analysis makes it possible to reveal the basic conditions for improving the action quality (its technique), and methodological analysis - to identify the minimum number of conditions, the fulfillment of which contributes to the optimal solution of the motor task. These significant landmarks are the main reference points [2, 3].
Teaching the orientation basis of motor actions during the physical education lessons should be ensured by the use of special motor exercises [8, 9]. The exercises we selected are included in a set of institutional and practical tools: lead-up exercises, exercises to develop reaction, resistance exercises, imitation exercises; their orientation basis implies the repetition of the maximum number of main reference points in the control exercises.
In view of the above, we assume that the application of the developed integrated methodology will contribute to the development of technical and physical fitness of students.
Objective of the study was to improve the technical and physical fitness process at school.
Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study run in the period of September 2016 through May 2017 were the 5-grade students of Lyceum in Elektrogorsk (n=49) split up into Experimental Group (n=27, including 12 boys and 15 girls) and Reference Group (n=22 including 13 boys and 9 girls). The RG was trained 3 times a week as required by the traditional school Physical Education program with reference to the basic physical skills learning procedures; and the EG was trained 3 times a week under the same physical education program complemented by the new institutional and practical education tools and provisions to help the children successfully master the basic physical skills.      
At the beginning and at the end of the educational experiment, we used a 5-point scale to rate the execution quality in the main reference points of the orientation basis of motor actions in the 5-grade students of the RG and EG in the tests as follows: 30 m run, 3x10 m shuttle run, standing long jump, 6 min run, straight-leg stretch exercise, sit-ups per 30 sec, hang pull-ups on the high crossbar (boys), lying pull-ups on the low crossbar (girls). At the beginning of the educational experiment, we conducted a comparative analysis of the results obtained, which revealed statistically insignificant differences in all tests between the boys and girls of the RG and EG ( >0.05), which confirms the homogeneity of the selected groups (Tables 1, 2).
Results and discussion. At the end of the educational experiment, the RG subjects (among the boys - from 2 to 4%, among the girls - from 2 to 6%) were found to have insignificant positive changes in the motor implementation of the orientation basis of motor actions in terms of the main reference points. In the EG, in both boys and girls, the main reference points assessment rates during the tests increased on average by 30% as opposed to the RG (Tables 1, 2).

Table 1. Changes in the rates of self-assessment of execution quality in the main reference points of orientation basis of motor actions among the 5-grade boys of the RG and EG at the beginning and at the end of the experiment

Test

Results obtained

Number of students

Mean value

Ʃ, points

Number of pairs

West

Significance of differences

(α)

Medians (Me), %

1

30 m run

before EG/RG

12/13

3.3/3.4

5/6

0.374

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

12/13

5.0/3.6

6/6

1.310

<0.05

34 / 4

2

3x10 shuttle run

before EG/RG

12/13

3.0/3.0

5/6

0.310

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

12/13

4.6/3.1

6/6

1.010

<0.05

32 / 2

3

Standing long jump

before EG/RG

12/13

3.1/3.0

5/6

0.386

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

12/13

5.0/3.2

6/6

1.453

<0.05

38 / 4

4

6 min run

before EG/RG

12/13

3.0/3.0

5/6

0.332

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

12/13

4.8/3.2

6/6

1.212

<0.05

36 / 4

5

Straight-leg stretch exercise

before EG/RG

12/13

3.4/3.4

5/6

0.381

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

12/13

5.0/3.6

6/6

1.344

<0.05

32 / 4

6

Sit-ups per 30 sec

before EG/RG

12/13

3.0/3.0

5/6

0.449

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

12/13

4.9/3.2

6/6

1.007

<0.05

38 / 4

7

Hang pull-ups on the high crossbar (boys)

before EG/RG

12/13

3.0/3.1

6/6

0.224

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

12/13

4.6/3.2

6/6

1.250

<0.05

32 / 2

Note.  RG, EG, West– the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, α – significance level.

The comparative analysis of the results obtained in both groups at the end of the educational experiment showed much better rates of self-assessment of the main reference points in the orientation basis of the action in the EG subjects of both sexes as compared to the RG subjects (there was an increase by 1.5 points). The positive changes in the results demonstrated by the EG students were statistically significant ( <0.05), which indicates the effectiveness of the developed set of institutional and practical tools to teach the schoolchildren the orientation basis of motor actions during the physical education lessons.
The greatest changes occurred in the EG girls: their indicators increased by 37.71%, while in the EG boys it increased by 34.57%, which wax 3.14% lower than in the girls.

Table 2.  Changes in the rates of self-assessment of execution quality in main reference points of orientation basis of motor actions among the 5-grade girls of the RG and EG at the beginning and at the end of the experiment

Test

Results obtained

Number of students

Mean value

Ʃ, points

Number of pairs

West

Significance of differences

(α)

Medians (Me), %

1

30 m run

before EG/RG

15/9

3.2/3.3

6/4

0.238

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

15/9

5.0/3.5

7/4

1.212

<0.05

36 / 4

2

3x10 shuttle run

before EG/RG

15/9

3.0/3.0

6/4

0.210

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

15/9

4.8/3.2

7/4

1.001

<0.05

36 / 4

3

Standing long jump

before EG/RG

15/9

3.0/3.1

6/4

0.356

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

15/9

5.0/3.4

 7/4

1.441

<0.05

40 / 6

4

6 min run

before EG/RG

15/9

3.0/3.0

6/4

0.321

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

15/9

4.9/3.2

7/4

1.203

<0.05

38 / 4

5

Straight-leg stretch exercise

before EG/RG

15/9

3.1/3.2

6/4

0.348

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

15/9

5.0/3.5

7/4

1.353

<0.05

38 / 6

6

Sit-ups per 30 sec

before EG/RG

15/9

3.0/3.0

6/4

0.438

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

15/9

4.9/3.1

7/4

1.019

<0.05

38 / 2

7

Hang pull-ups on the high crossbar (boys)

before EG/RG

15/9

3.0/3.0

7/4

0.219

> 0.05

 

after EG/RG

15/9

4,9/3,2

7/4

1,283

<0,05

38 / 4

Note.  RG, EG, West– the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, α – significance level.

The effectiveness of the training process depends on the duration of the period of transition from knowledge to motor skills. The essential components of this process are as follows: trainee’s motor talent and motor experience; his/ her age; coordination complexity of motor actions; teacher’s professional skills; student’s level of motivation, consciousness, activity, etc. Motor actions should be taught in the following methodological sequence: formation of positive educational motivation among students by encouraging them to master motor actions conscientiously and significantly; formation of knowledge about motor actions, which is formed while observing the execution of the reference actions and listening to the commentaries accompanying the demonstration - when those elements of motor actions and peculiarities of the main reference points that determine the execution quality and make up the action program, orientation basis of motor actions, are highlighted
Conclusion. The physical education lessons with the use of a special set of institutional and practical tools to teach schoolchildren the orientation basis of motor actions not only increase their technical and physical fitness, but also contributes to the formation in them of skills of independent health-and-fitness and sports activities.

References

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Corresponding author: olgavikku@mail.ru

Abstract
Modern social challenges, new Federal State Education Standards (FSES) and the GTO Complex reinstatement project have set new higher requirements to the school physical education service quality. The teacher is expected, first and foremost, to train children on a conscientious basis from the goal setting to practical results, with the physical skill mastering process being designed on an integrated basis i.e. to form the physical skill basics. Objective of the study was to improve the technical and physical fitness process at school. Sampled for the study run in the period of September 2016 through May 2017 were the 5-grade students of Liceum in Elektrogorsk (n=49) split up into Experimental Group (n=27, including 12 boys and 15 girls) and Reference Group (n=22 including 13 boys and 9 girls). The RG was trained 3 times a week as required by the traditional school physical education program with reference to the basic physical skills learning procedures; and the EG was trained 3 times a week under the same physical education program complemented by the new institutional and practical education tools and provisions to help the children successfully master the basic physical skills. The experimental study showed benefits of the new basic physical skill training model as verified by the improved EG motivations for the school physical education service and higher physical fitness rates, physical education competences, skills and abilities within the age-specific physical standards.