Model characteristics of special physical fitness in elite high jumping sport

Dr.Hab., Professor I.K. Latypov1
D.G. Sirotkin2
1Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism, Kazan
2Moscow City Pedagogical University, Moscow

Keywords: high jumps, training system, special physical fitness, progress tests in high jump.

Introduction. The WADA anti-doping system strengthened in recent decade and the related doping scandals involving athletes from various countries affected Russian athletes, too. The sanctions for our athletes, suspension from participation in the 2016 Olympics and other international starts from the end of 2015 created significant difficulties in the work of domestic coaches and athletes. The insufficiently effective training system for Russian track and field athletes gave rise to the contradiction between the constant increase in time and material inputs in training of the leading athletes with a decrease in the competitive performance results. This situation generated a problem, the solution of which is only possible with the continuous improvement of the training system management in high jumping sport, modernization of the integrated control procedure [1-3, 6].

The scientific approach to the management of training of elite jumpers is based on the comprehensive monitoring of their special physical fitness and involves an accurate quantitative assessment of all components of the training process, fitness indicators at all stages of the annual cycle [4, 5]. All this fully applies to the management of the track and field high jump training - one of the leading disciplines of Russian athletics [3, 6].

The pedagogical observation of the training process and control over special physical fitness of elite high jumpers showed that despite the significant number of control exercises (about 20 exercises), special literature does not provide any substantiation of the informative value and reliability of the data obtained during these control exercises [1, 2, 6 ].

Objective of the study was to develop and test by an experiment a new progress test model with model characteristics of special physical fitness applicable at the sport excellence stage in elite high jumping sport.

Methods and structure of the study. The study included a questionnaire survey of the athletes, the physical fitness progress tests and mathematical processing of the test data, with 38 elite high jumpers (qualified CMS to WCMS) sampled for the study.

Results and discussion. At the first stage of the experiment, we conducted a questionnaire survey of the elite high jumpers to select from a considerable number of tests used in the practice of pedagogical control (about 20 exercises) the most popular and frequently used ones (10 tests in total, 2 - for assessing the athletes’ sprint skills, 4 – for assessing their jumping and reactive abilities, and 4 tests – for assessing their strength fitness level).

At the second stage, the jumpers were tested in 10 specially selected tests; the informative value of the test exercises and the significance level were determined using the statistical evaluation methods (correlation analysis) (Table 1).

Table 1. Informative value of control exercise performance rates in male high jumpers

No

Test rates

Informative value

Significance level, р

1

60 m run from the start (n=38)

-0.592

<0.001

2

100 m run from the start (n=38)

-0.566

<0.001

3

Standing long jump (n=38)

0.537

<0.001

4

Standing triple jump (n=38)

0.646

<0.001

5

5-stride jump from 6 running steps (n=38)

0.770

<0.001

6

10-fold standing long jump (n=15)

0.443

>0.05

7

Rising from a back half-squat (n=29)

0.502

<0.01

8

Power clean (n=29)

0.556

<0.01

9

Barbell snatch (n=29)

0.703

<0.001

10

Rising from a back squat (n=24)

0.589

<0.001

The statistical relationship between the control exercise rates and the high jump test results was observed in almost all the tests (9 out of 10 tests, with the exception of the 10-fold standing long jump (p>0.05). Therefore, we identified 9 informative control exercises: 60 m run from the start; 100 m run from the start; standing long jump; standing triple jump; 5-stride jump from 6 running steps; back half-squats and squats; barbell snatch and power clean.

The high jump test results correlated most significantly with the results of the following tests: 5-stride jump from 6 running steps (r=0.770), barbell snatch (r=0.703), standing triple jump (r=0.646), 60 m run from the start (r=-0.592). These 4 most informative tests, characterizing different aspects of special physical fitness of high jumpers, made up the special physical fitness control model for high jumping sport.

At the third stage of the experiment, the exercises used were tested for reliability by means of the test-retest method. The reliability coefficients obtained meet the test theory requirements and testify to the high level of reliability of the control exercises (Table 2).

Table 2. Test reliability rates

No

Control exercises

Reliability coefficient

1

60 m run from the start

0.94

2

Standing triple jump

0.93

3

5-stride jump from 6 running steps

0.91

4

Barbell snatch

0.93

 

At the next stage of the experiment, we conducted a regression analysis of the test rates, which enabled to obtain regression equations to determine the dependence of the high jump test results on the control exercise performance rates (Table 3).

 

Table 3. Regression equation coefficients (Y=A+BX) used to determine physical fitness qualifying standards during tests (X) targeted to specific high jump rates (Y)

No

Indicators

А

В

1

60 m run from the start, sec

3.770

- 0.220

2

Standing triple jump, m

1.430

0.086

3

5-stride jump from 6 running steps, m

1.350

0.042

4

Barbell snatch, % of sole weight

1.838

0.0046

The regression equations helped develop the model characteristics for determining the results in the control tests targeted to specific high jump rates - within the range of the competitive result 2.15 - 2.35 m (Table 4).

The scientific studies and practical experience of coaches show that it is advisable to conduct an integrated assessment of the athletes’ special physical fitness based on the relative indicators expressed in points and corresponding to a specific sports result. This makes it possible to avoid complex calculations, clearly see underperformance or prevalence of one or another aspect of the athlete’s special physical fitness, as well as the correspondence of the fitness level to a certain competitive result. Below are the tables presenting the results in high jumps within the range of the result 2.15 - 2.35 m, demonstrated by the males and expressed in points (Table 5).

Table 4. Model physical fitness characteristics of elite high jumpers

No

Indicators

High jump test results, m

2.15

2.20

2.25

2.30

2.35

1

60 m run from the start, sec

7.36

7.13

6.91

6.68

6.45

2

Standing triple jump, m

8.45

9.00

9.55

10.10

10.65

3

5-stride jump from 6 running steps, m

19.00

20.20

21.40

22.60

23.80

4

Barbell snatch, % of sole weight

70

80

90

100

1

 

 

 

Table 5. Evaluation of control exercise performance of male high jumpers (in points)

POINTS

60 m run,

manual timing, sec

Standing triple jump, m

5-stride jump from 6 running steps, m

Barbell snatch, % of the athlete’s sole weight

235

6.45

10.65

23.80

110

234

6.50

10.54

23.56

108

233

6.54

10.43

23.32

106

232

6.59

10.32

23.08

104

231

6.63

10.21

22.84

102

230

6.68

10.10

22.60

100

229

6.72

9.99

22.36

98

228

6.77

9.88

22.12

96

227

6.82

9.77

21.88

94

226

6.86

9.66

21.64

92

225

6.91

9.55

21.40

90

224

6.95

9.44

21.16

88

223

6.99

9.33

20.92

86

222

7.04

9.22

20.68

84

221

7.08

9.11

20.44

82

220

7.13

9.00

20.20

80

219

7.18

8.89

19.96

78

218

7.22

8.78

19.72

76

217

7.27

8.67

19.48

74

216

7.31

8.56

19.24

72

215

7.36

8.45

19.00

70

This table makes it possible to determine whether or not the level of development of certain aspects of the athlete’s special physical fitness complies with the result in the high jump tests, identify the weaknesses, assess the athlete’s total motor potential, outline the ways to improve lagging motor abilities. The total motor potential (the overall result in 4 tests, expressed in points), divided by 4, must correspond to the competitive result in high jumps. Moreover, if the total potential in points divided by 4 is lower than the result in high jumps (in cm), then the level of mastery of the jumping technique is high, if it is higher, then, on the contrary, the athlete lacks the technical skill.

Therefore, this model enables to control the technical and physical fitness of the jumpers during the training process based on the quantitative indicators, thus tracking these indicators in dynamics.

Conclusion. The model physical fitness characteristics made it possible to identify the advantages and drawbacks in the special physical fitness and training systems; offer the corrective training tools to bridge the gaps in the training systems; rate the physical potential and technical fitness of the athletes by the model tests; and develop the individual progress paths to improve the physical fitness of every athlete. The physical fitness scoring system applied in the progress tests makes it possible to fairly rate progress in every physical fitness aspect versus the expected competitive performance and indirectly rate the technical mastery of every athlete.

References

  1. Mironenko I.N. Evolyutsiya dvigatelnykh deystviy v pryizhkovykh lokomotsiyakh cheloveka [Evolution of motor actions in human jump locomotion]. Sovremenny vzglyad na podgotovku legkoatletov [Modern view on athletic training]. Proc. int. conf.. Moscow, 2006. pp. 127–147.
  2. Ogandzhanov A.L. Kompleksny kontrol v legkoy atletike [Comprehensive Control in Athletics] Moscow: MSPU publ., 2014. 188 p.
  3. Ogandzhanov A.L., Tsyplenkova E.S., Ovchinnikov P.A. Tekhnologiya upravleniya podgotovkoy legkoatletov-pryigunov s ispolzovaniem innovatsionnoy izmeritelnoy sistemy [Technology of jumper training process management using innovative measuring system]. Izvestiya Tulskogo gosuniversiteta. Tula, 2016. v. 2. pp. 157–164.
  4. Platonov V.N. Sistema podgotovki sportsmenov v olimpiyskom vide sporta. Obshchaya teoriya i ee prakticheskie prilozheniya [Olympic athletic training system. General theory and its practical applications]. Kiev: Olimpiyskaya literatura publ, 2004. 808 p.
  5. Popov V.B. Sistema sportivnoy podgotovki vysokokvalifitsirovannykh legkoatletov-prygunov: (teoriya, praktika, metodika) [Training system for highly skilled jumpers: (theory, practice, methods)]. Doct. diss. abstr. (Hab.). Moscow, 1988. 51 p.
  6. Strizhak A.P., Zagorulko E.P. Pryzhok v vysotu [High Jump]. Moscow: Akademiya zdorovya publ, 2015. 88 p.

Corresponding author: latypov56@mail.ru

Abstract

Integrated progress tests are in high priority in the modern training systems in the high jumping sport. The study was intended to develop and test by an experiment a new progress test model with model characteristics of special physical fitness applicable at the sport excellence stage in elite high jumping sport. The study included a questionnaire survey of athletes, the physical fitness progress tests and mathematical processing of the test data, with 38 elite high jumpers (qualified CMS to WCMS) sampled for the study.

The model physical fitness characteristics made it possible to identify the advantages and drawbacks in the special physical fitness and training systems; offer the corrective training tools to bridge the gaps in the training systems; rate the physical resources and technical fitness of the athletes by the model tests; and develop the individual progress paths to improve the physical fitness of every athlete. The physical fitness scoring system applied in the progress tests makes it possible to fairly rate progress in every physical fitness aspect versus the expected competitive performance and indirectly rate the technical mastery of every athlete.