Individualized motivations-sensitive adaptive academic physical education

Dr.Hab., Associate Professor  T.K. Kim1
Dr.Hab., Associate Professor G.A. Kuzmenko1
Dr.Hab., Professor V.M. Shulyatev1
1Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow

Keywords: physical education, students with health impairments, education material, reflection, self-education, practice-prioritizing approach.

Background. Special study reports and statistics show a fast growth in the number of those attributed to special health groups in the national educational system for the last few years [1, 2, 4], and that is the reason why new self-reliant physical models are developed and offered to this health group to facilitate progress by a wide range of the physical education service, healthy lifestyle cultivation and physical activation tools. The physical education service models for this health category are recommended giving a special priority to the individual activation, reflective, axiological and other key aspects of trainings. The physical activation aspect of the modern physical education service, as provided by Professor L.P. Matveyev, will be designed to ‘develop and activate the key individual physical qualities and associating capacities to improve tolerance to the health stressors potentially harmful for health standards… and facilitate the individual physical development and fitness activity’ [3, p.19].

Academic progress in the self-reliant physical education theory and practice depends on multiple factors of influence including the ‘reflective/ analytical capacity to effectively digest the physical education logics and toolkits… with the ability to design, reconstruct, revise and analyze the physical education content, with the trainee expected to efficiently manage his/her own trainings in the most purposeful manner to change, improve or redesign it when necessary’ [4, p. 90]; with the ‘personality qualities of the special health group students being developed on a harmoniously integrated basis for productive progress in the personality growth and development domains’ [1, p. 328]; with the ‘teacher’s competency in the individualized physical education service being persistently advanced’ [2, p. 93]; and with the physical education service system offering a harmonized ‘didactic cooperation models’ to cultivate the socially critical components of the individual and collective health agendas [2, p. 56].

Objective of the study was to test benefits of a practice-prioritizing adaptive physical education service model for the special health group students sensitive to their values and priorities and geared to facilitate their progress in the physical education theory and practice.

Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study run in September 2018 through March 2019 were the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (PFUR) students attributed to the special health group (n=50) formally released of the regular physical education classes. The special health group values and priorities in the physical education service domain were tested by a questionnaire survey and analyzed by a comparative analytical toolkit to offer the practice-prioritizing adaptive physical education service model sensitive to the individual values and priorities.

Results and discussion. The survey profiled the key physical education values and priorities of the special health group students (see Table 1 column 1) that are being cultivated and developed in the axiological, reflective and operational domains. The values and priorities were grouped by the factorial weights into a hierarchy to determine the basic clusters (highlighted in Table 1) critical for progress in the adaptive physical education with its health development and health protection aspects and technologies and reflections to analyze, design and pursue the best health models.

Table 1. Personality progress of the special health group students (n=50) in the adaptive self-reliant physical education and healthy lifestyle service model: progress data (points) as of March 2019

Individual values and priorities in the physical education service domains (хav+σ)

P, Wilcoxon Test

Personally valuable and important aspects of the adaptive physical education service (хav+σ)

Individual/ collective health values (4.54±0.50)


(tcalc 0,59)

Attitude to the academic work with transition from formal awareness of physical education values and benefits to personally important physical activity (4,581±0,49)

Acceptance of health limitations for physical education (4,521±0,51)


(tcalc 0,52)

Zoning potential and necessary physical activity (by physical education content and intensity) customized to mental and physical health limitations (4,606±0,49)

Appreciation of physical education discipline and its benefits for own health agenda (3,984±0,51)



Physical education service with its health building technologies, healthy lifestyle and behavioral models (4,727±0,45); factorial weight ratio: 0,80

Values-driven appreciation of physical education service with specific physical activity tools (3,963±0,49)



Values-driven appreciation of regular physical education service and its benefits for own healthy lifestyle (4,644±0,48); factorial weight ratio: 0,91

Reflection of close role models in context of the physical education / health service (3,967±0,57)



Reflection of physical activity, physical education, physical culture and health of the role models, with a focus on the fully-fledged own independent life (4,663±0,48); factorial weight ratio:0,87

Healthy lifestyle and physical culture of role models (3,954±0,47)



Healthy lifestyle and physical trainings viewed as an indispensable part of the everyday culture in the youth community and leadership in physical activity (4,708±0,46); factorial weight ratio: 0,89

Self-learning of healthy lifestyle and behavior (3,863±0,63)



Role model driven learning with physical activity self-modeling to optimize own physical fitness (4,683±0,47); factorial weight ratio: 0,83

Health/ physical development/ physical fitness standards in context of physical education values (2,927±0,57)



Retrospective results of the physical education model and its benefits for life quality (4,622±0,49)

Limitations for physical education (2,886±0,33)



Finding institutional opportunities and resources for own physical activity in academic studies (4,761±0,43).

Acceptance of ±1.5-hour physical education sessions (2,854±0,58)


(tcalc. 0,000)

Designing own physical education models within the academic timeframes and content (4,704±0,46); factorial weight ratio: 0,81

Avoiding physical education sessions (with delays ‘for tomorrow’) whilst acknowledging the physical activity values and having physical activity motivations (2,783±0,42)



Offering accessible health physical education formats ‘for today’ with a transition from the physical activity motivations ‘for tomorrow’ to those ‘for today’, with own volitional, self-control, operational and technological resources being fully mobilized (4,726±0,45); factorial weight ratio: 0,74

Conclusion. The practice-prioritizing adaptive physical education service model for the special health group students sensitive to their values and priorities and geared to facilitate their progress in the physical education theory and practice in the personality operational, reflective and axiological domains – was found beneficial as it helps motivate the students for physical education and work out effective individual behavioral models driven by due motivations, goal-setting and progress planning capacities, with the progress being controlled by the model customization and correction when necessary. The adaptive physical education model customization to the individual specific needs, values and priorities in the academic physical education service was found to improve and develop the students’ health agendas, knowledge and skills.

For the physical education service objectives of the health group to be successfully attained, the physical education service model shall include efficient self-reliant learning components. Such an approach is particularly natural and beneficial for the special health group students since their diagnoses and the associating health limitations are widely variable and, hence, the physical education models need to be widely customized to offer the individual physical education progress paths for the health group.

The practice-prioritizing adaptive physical education service model for the special health group students sensitive to their values and priorities and geared to facilitate their progress in the physical education theory and practice was found adaptable enough to offer a wide range of recommended physical activity elements to secure progress of every student.


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  2. Kim T.K., Kuzmenko G.A., Yudin B.D. et al. Osnovnye aspekty formirovaniya zdorovogo obraza zhizni detey, podrostkov i uchashcheysya molodezhi v obrazovatelnykh uchrezhdeniyakh [Key aspects of formation of healthy lifestyle of children, adolescents and students in educational institutions]. Moscow: MSPU publ.. 2011. 152 p.
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  4. Mushakov A.A., Neverkovich S.D. Refleksiya kak sposob i sredstvo preodoleniya krizisa vysshego fizkulturnogo obrazovaniya [Reflection as a way and means of overcoming crisis of higher physical education]. Fizicheskaya kultura, sport – nauka i praktika. 2016. no. 1. pp. 90–95.

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The study overviews findings in the academic adaptive physical education and self-education improvement domain; with a special priority to the personally important values of the students with health impairments – to facilitate progress in the academic physical education service for this health group. The authors offered a new adaptive axiological education model sensitive to the personality values and priorities to motivate students for the individualized physical education with health protection and improvement agendas and components. The practice-prioritizing adaptive education sensitive to the individual motivations and priorities in the physical education domain was found beneficial as it helped the health group effectively adapt to the physical education and improve the physical activity and everyday life.