Effects of visual thinking for cardiovascular system functionality rates

Dr.Hab., Professor I.D. Svischev1
Dr.Biol., Professor R.V. Tambovtseva1
PhD, Professor V.N. Cheremisinov1
PhD A.A. Laptev1
1Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow

Keywords: individualized physical practices, actual and watched execution, cardiovascular system functionality rates, age groups, visual thinking

Introduction. The human brain is in a constant mutual regulatory relationship with the autonomic nervous system. Visual thinking produces changes in the work of the autonomic nervous system, which, in turn, affects the work of the life-supporting systems of the body. Thus, the cardiovascular system functionality may indirectly depend on actual and watched execution and associated visual-cognitive activity. Thinking helps create and perceive images in terms of sensation. The term "visual thinking" was introduced by the American psychologist Rudolf Arnheim, whose works gave rise to modern studies on the role of visual phenomena in cognitive activity [1].
It is well known that neurons, including mirror ones, operate constantly, whether the subject actually performs an exercise or watches its execution. The phenomenon of neural connections explains the process of unconscious learning, both when performing actions and when observing the action performed by another person [2, 3]. The sensor cells receive and transmit signals to the muscles, sensor organs - to the spinal cord and brain; inter-neurons – nervous cells of the central nervous system - are involved in information processing; with the help of motor neurons, the central nervous system transmits signals to the bodily organs and muscles [7].
Italian scientists have put forward a hypothesis about functioning of the mirror neurons (G. Rizzolatti) [9-12]. The mirror neurons are the brain neurons that are activated when: 1) actions are performed; 2) watching someone performing an action. In humans, the mirror neurons are located in the frontal lobes of the brain, in those parts responsible for motor functions, and in the parietal lobe of the large brain [3]. The Indian scientist V. Ramachandran believes that the mirror neurons play an important role "in the processes of imitation and language learning" [6].
The domestic physiologist V.A. Martyanov (2017) found an increase in the functional state (FS) of wrestlers watching their rival fight. The parameters of the motor reaction time, strength of the reflex contraction and that of a single contraction of the quadriceps femoris, strength of a single contraction and strength of an arbitrary contraction of the biceps were determined in his studies. As a result, all indicators increased. Therefore, the observations enabled to determine the emotional state and its impact on the FS of the fighter's neuromuscular system during watched execution [5].
Among the bodily functions are sensation, perception, information presentation and processing, decision making, as well as function implementation [8]. In our study, we based ourselves upon the phenomenon of visual reflection. Visual perception is a complex work, during which a large number of visual stimuli is analyzed [5].
We assumed that actual and watched exercises would make it possible to identify changes occurring in the cardiovascular system and find additional forms of training tasks for different age groups.
The sensor cells functions including the transmission of signals from the working muscles and sense organs to the spinal cord and brain, plus effects of the mirror neurons, inter-neurons - nervous cells of the central nervous system – cause changes in the cardiovascular system when an execution is watched and analyzed [1, 2, 4].
Objective of the study was to analyze effects of actual execution versus watched execution on the cardiovascular system (CVS) functionality rates and its economization for different age groups.
Methods and structure of the study. The measurements were taken on pairs of subjects. One performed an exercise, the other watched, after which they changed. The study involved 11 subjects aged 20 years and 70+ year-old people. None of them had cardiovascular diseases.
One subject performed the exercise and, upon full recovery, sat comfortably in a chair to watch the other subject perform the exercise. Then we measured their blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and blood circulation economization index (BCEI).
The analysis of the scientific and methodological literature, autobiographical method, video analysis, methods used to rate blood circulation economization index, heart rate and BP showed that the state of the cardiovascular system is determined by the blood circulation economization index. The heart rate and blood pressure measurements were carried out using "OTRON" device - an automatic wrist blood pressure and heart rate monitor. Model R 2. The heart rate and blood pressure indices serve as auxiliary criteria in the development of new technologies for determining different forms of training activity.
The effects of actual and watched execution on the cardiovascular system functionality rates were studied through the analysis of blood circulation economization index. Changes in blood circulation economization index, being associated with blood pressure and heart rate, reflect the effects of the sympathetic nervous system on cardiac activity during both actual and watched execution.
Determination of a statistically significant dependence of the cardiovascular system functionality rates on visual observation on another person performing physical exercises turned out to be of great importance. If there is a similar dependence on the group’s average, it is planned to investigate the content of training tasks with due regard to the volume and intensity of physical loads.
It is well known that the course of emotional and motivational mental processes is closely associated with the changes in the vegetative functions of the body, on which, actually, the work of the “lie detector” (polygraph) is based.
Looking at the image, the subject moves his eyes from one detail to another, compares them, returning to the main points of each fragment, analyzes individual elements. The repetition of individual stages, repeated improvement of visual activity skills are aimed to recognize and form a holistic system that would meet the task set. Such a system will quickly recover whenever a need arises, even after a certain lapse of time. Scientists call this "VT at work."
The basic elements of visual aids constitute various forms of specially structured information, the processing of which becomes a methodological component of visualization technology.
By the nature of the dominant modality of information presentation, the representative systems are divided into:
• visual - in the form of images (vision dominates);
• audio - in the form of sounds and words (hearing dominates);
• kinetic - (motor sensations dominate);
• polymodal - (generalized ideas, mental processes dominate) [1].
Noninvasive blood pressure measurement is a relatively reliable method of estimation of the cardiovascular system functionality. Physical loads cause an increase in heart rate. There is a direct correlation between them. The amount of loads can be expressed by the number of exercises. heart rate is a reliable indicator of the level of physical fitness and cardiovascular system functionality.
The functional state of the cardiovascular system can be assessed by the blood circulation economization index, which reflects the minute blood volume rate. It is calculated by the formula:

BCEI = (BP max – BP min) х HR,

where BP max  – maximal blood pressure; BP min – minimal blood pressure. blood circulation economization index in a healthy person equals 2600. If, for instance, BP max = 140 mmHg, BP min = 90 mmHg, then BCEI = (140 – 90) × 72 = 3600.
Results and discussion. The CVS indicators in the 20 year-old subjects during actual and watched execution.
As can be seen from Table 1, after rest upon actual execution of the exercise, blood circulation economization index increased by 58.7%, and upon watched execution - by 41.3%, that is, the difference amounted to 17.4%. In other words, the difference between blood circulation economization index during actual and watched execution was 17.4%. (Tables 1-3).

Table 1. Cardiovascular system indicators in 20 year-old subjects during actual and watched execution of burpy (n=5).

Content

BP max

BP min

HR

BCEI

Rest

137.0±13.0

76.0±5.0

55.0±4.3

3355.0±320.0

Burpy

151.0±18.7

82.0±9.2

89.0±7.4

6141.0±543.0

Rest

136.0±16.0

72.0±6.3

54.0±6.8

3456.0±289.0

Watching

145.0±19.0

72.0±8.8

59.0±7.6

4307.0±356.0

The cardiovascular system indicators in the 70+ year-old subjects during actual and watched execution of the 2 min treadmill run test.

After rest upon actual execution of the 2 min treadmill run test, blood circulation economization index increased by 55%, and upon watched execution - by 45%, that is, the difference amounted to 10%. In other words, the difference between blood circulation economization index during actual and watched execution was 10% (Tables 2, 3).

Table 2. Cardiovascular system indicators in 70+ year-old subjects during actual and watched execution of 2 min treadmill run test (n=3)

Content

BP max

BP min

HR

BCEI

Rest

147.0±15.0

97.0±7.4

71.0±7.6

3550.0±310

2 min treadmill run – actual execution

186.0±19.1

98.0±8.3

63.0±6.4

5544.0±448

Rest

145.0±14.9

98.0±10.7

73.0±11.8

3431.0±289

2 min treadmill run – watched execution

165.0±17.0

92.0±8.9

62.0±6.6

4526.0±357

Table 3. Cardiovascular system indicators in 20 year-old (n=5) and 70+ year-old subjects (n=3) during actual and watched execution

Subjects

BCEI during actual execution

BCEI during watched execution

BCEI ratio during actual execution, %

BCEI ratio during watched execution, %

Difference

20 year-old (burpy)

6141.0±543.0

4307.0±356.0

58.7%

41.3%.

17.4%

70+ year-old (2 min run)

5544.0±448.9

4526.0±377.0

55.0%

45.0%

10.0%

The data obtained indicate that the blood circulation economization index values can serve as auxiliary criteria in the development of new exercise performance techniques. In particular, under various conditions: injuries, age limit, limited space – actual execution can be replaced by watched one.
Conclusion. The findings indicate that the blood circulation economization index values can serve as auxiliary criteria in the development of new exercise performance techniques. We determined the cardiovascular system functionality (economization) rates, changes in the cardiovascular system indicators in different age groups during actual and subsequent watched execution. Actual execution followed by watched execution will enable to identify changes in the cardiovascular system indicators and find additional forms of training tasks for 70+ year-olds, athletes under treatment, as well as for those engaged in fitness and astronautics.

References

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Corresponding author: ioan47@mail.ru

Abstract
The study was designed to analyze effects of actual execution versus watched execution on the cardiovascular system functionality rates for different age groups. It was found, for instance, that the cardiovascular system functionality rates in case of watched execution vary within the range of 45-57% of the actual execution. The sensor cells functions including the transmission of signals from the working muscles and sense organs to brain, plus effects of mirror neurons, inter-neurons (nervous cells of the CNS) were found to vary when an execution is watched and instinctively analyzed. This kind of active watching may be beneficial for the 70+ year old age group, athletes rehabilitating from injuries and in the modern fitness trainings and trainings of space crews.