Competitive success rates versus physical development and physical fitness rates of 11-17 year old weightlifters

PhD, Associate Professor V.P. Simen
Chuvash State Pedagogical University named after I. Yakovlev, Cheboksary

Keywords: junior weightlifters, physical development, physical fitness, competitive success rate, correlation.

Introduction. According to numerous authors [1, 3, 5 et al.], management of the training process and forecasting of competitive success become possible due to focusing on those aspects of athletic fitness that have a statistically significant positive correlation with the competitive success rate, i.e. act as critical factors in achieving high sports results. These indicators are deemed as model characteristics of an "ideal" weightlifter.
V.G. Konestyapin [2] emphasizes that it is important to consider the proportionality in the level of development of basic physical qualities in the formation of model characteristics.
The principle of proportionality in the level of development of fitness components suggests that the physical qualities that negatively correlate with the competitive success rate should be singled out as model characteristics as well. Without that requirement, model characteristics of weightlifters will not have a clear structure and will contain a list of unreasonable demands only.
The questionnaire survey of the highly-skilled weightlifters and trainers [4, p. 68] revealed that the most significant physical qualities in kettlebell lifting are strength endurance (100%), speed-strength qualities (40%), coordination abilities, and flexibility (22.8% each). Strength (11.4%) and speed qualities (2.8%) are less significant for achieving high competitive success rates in kettlebell lifting.
To date, the scientific and methodological literature does not present any scientifically substantiated model characteristics that would determine the necessary level of development of the quadriceps muscle of thigh, calf muscles, triceps muscle of the arm, flexors of the arm, and extensors of the body of the weightlifters. Also, there are no statistically significant indices of coordination abilities, speed-strength qualities, and overall endurance, and consideration of the weightlifters’ long-term sports training stages as model characteristics, necessary for determining specific objectives of the training process. This causes certain difficulties in the planning and organization of the training process for weightlifters. The resolution of this conflict is relevant at the present stage of development of the theory and methodology of kettlebell lifting, and is of both scientific and practical interest.
Objective of the study was to analyze competitive success rates versus physical development and physical fitness indices of 11-17 year-old weightlifters in kettlebell sport.
Methods and structure of the study. The study involved anthropometry, dynamometry, spirometry, pedagogical testing, and methods of mathematical statistics. Sampled for the study were 98 male weightlifters of the following age groups: 10-11 year-old (n=24); 12–13 year-old (n=17); 14–15 year-old (n=32); and 16–17 year-old (n=25) groups. The subjects were tested for physical development (body mass, body length, shoulder length, wrist length, pelvis width, vital capacity, wrist dynamometry, deadlift dynamometry), physical development indices (Kettle index, shoulder, wrist, pelvis indices, birth-death ratio, wrist and trunk strength indices) and physical fitness (speed-strength, strength, strength endurance, movement coordination, overall endurance and flexibility); versus the competitive success rates in the republican classical combined tournaments. A linear correlation method was used to rate the correlation between the competitive success, physical development and physical fitness rates.
Results and discussion. The results of the analysis of correlation between physical development (PhD), physical fitness and competitive success rates are presented in Tables 1 and 2, respectively.

Table 1. Correlation between physical fitness and competitive success rates in 11-17 year-old weightlifters

Indicators of physical development

COMPETITIVE SUCCESS RATE

10-11 years old,

n=24

12-13 years old, n=17

14-15 years old, n=32

16-17 years old, n=25

Jerk

Push

Jerk

Push

Jerk

Push

Jerk

Body weight, kg

-0.25

0.36

0.36

0.37*

0.23

0.17

0.30

Body length, cm

0.25

0.10

0.17

0.29

0.18

0.22

0.02

BMI

-0.34

0.40

0.38

0.36*

0.24

0.14

0.32

Shoulder length, cm

-0.03

0.15

0.39

0.09

0.22

0.25

0.07

Relative shoulder length

-0.48*

0.13

0.47*

-0.34

0.17

0.12

0.07

Wrist length, cm

0.16

-0.07

0.18

0.20

0.21

0.18

0.20

Relative wrist length, cm

0.06

-0.22

0.02

-0.19

-0.04

-0.07

0.16

Pelvis width, cm

-0.13

0.30

0.34

0.07

0.25

0.17

0.26

Relative pelvis width, cm

-0.35

0.34

0.32

-0.26

0.07

0.07

0.25

Vital capacity, ml

0.30

-0.09

0.23

0.49*

0.42*

0.35

0.14

BDR, ml/kg

0.38

-0.50*

-0.30

0.25

0.35

0.17

-0.14

Left wrist dynamometry, kg

-0.10

-0.04

0.38

0.21

0.52*

0.42*

0.44*

Right wrist dynamometry, kg

0.15

0.05

0.54*

0.26

0.40*

0.36

0.41*

Wrist strength index

0.29

-0.30

0.34

0.01

0.39*

0.19

0.14

Deadlift dynamometry, kg

0.14

0.46*

0.60*

0.39*

0.34

0.39

0.57*

Trunk strength index

0.31

0.00

0.13

0.22

0.27

0.29

0.38

Note. Here and in Table 2: * – р<0.05; ** – р<0.91

Table 2. Correlation between physical fitness and competitive success rates in 11-17 year-old weightlifters

Indicators of physical fitness

COMPETITIVE SUCCESS RATE

10-11 years old,

n=24

12-13 years old, n=17

14-15 years old, n=32

16-17 years old, n=25

Jerk

Push

Jerk

Push

Jerk

Push

Jerk

Rising from a squat with maximum effort, kg

0.68**

0.50*

0.65*

0.08

0.00

0.06

0.06

Relative strength of the leg muscles

0.53*

0.14

0.31

-0.15

-0.13

0.02

-0.02

Bench press with maximum effort, kg

0.43*

0.12

0.62*

0.30

0.44*

0.16

0.00

Pull-ups on the horizontal bar, reps

-0.07

-0.09

0.50*

0.11

0.37*

0.11

-0.16

Bending forward from the normal stand position, cm

0.61**

0.07

0.31

0.25

0.13

0.31

0.08

3kg medicine ball throwing, m

-0.40*

0.15

0.39

0.22

0.44*

0.52*

0.35

Standing long jump, cm

-0.07

0.20

0.36

0.40*

0.26

0.39

0.13

Squats with 50 % of maximum weight for 2 min, reps

-0.17

-0.22

-0.36

-0.07

-0.09

0.49*

0.10

Push-ups for 2 min, reps

0.28

-0.06

-0.29

0.24

0.25

0.25

0.13

Hanging on the horizontal bar to failure, min

0.50*

0.18

0.17

0.16

0.16

0.29

0.59*

Three-stride standing long jump, m

0.23

0.07

-0.04

0.20

0.32

0.34

0.11

1000 m race, min

-0.30

-0.17

-0.14

-0.30

0.21

-0.05

0.25

It was found that the competitive success rate in the jerk is higher in the 10–11 year-old weightlifters, who are characterized by the lower relative shoulder length (r=-0.48), high values of the absolute strength of the extensor muscles of the legs (r=0.68) and arms (r=0.43), relative strength of the leg extensor muscles (r=0.53), flexibility of the spinal column (r=0.61), medicine ball throwing (r=0.40) and hanging on the horizontal bar (r=0.50) test rates. It can be concluded that the high level of development of the absolute and relative strength of the leg and arm extensor muscles, strength endurance of the arm muscles, flexibility, explosive force of the leg, trunk and arm muscles are crucial to the achievement of high results in the jerk at the age of 10–11 years.
A negative correlation between the competitive success rate in the jerk and the birth-death ratio (r=-0.50) as well as a positive correlation with the indices of rising from a squat with maximum effort are observed at the age of 12–13 years. The birth-death ratio at this age is usually associated with body weight - children with the high body mass indices, just like their peers with the lower ones, demonstrate much the same vital capacity. This is due to the fact that body length and weight are ahead of the development of the external respiratory function. Therefore, children with the high body weight values are characterized by the low birth-death ratio, on the one hand, and high results in the push, on the other (r=0.36). At this age, as a year earlier, the level of development of the explosive strength of the leg and trunk extensors is integral to the achievement of high competitive success rate in the push. The achievement of high competitive success rate in the jerk at the age of 12–13 years is significantly affected by the relative shoulder length (r=0.47), lifting force (r=0.60) and strength of the right wrist flexor muscles (r=0.54), extensors of the legs (r=0.65) and arms (r=0.62), relative strength of the arm muscles (r=0.50).
The results in the push at the age of 14–15 years positively correlate with body weight (r=0.37), height/weight (r=0.36) and vital capacity (r=0.49) rates, deadlift dynamometry (r=0.39) and standing long jump (r=0.40) test rates. The results in the jerk also positively correlate with the vital capacity rate (r=0.42). The level of development of the arm flexor strength is essential for achieving high competitive results, as evidenced by the high rates of correlation with the wrist dynamometry test rates (r=0.52; r=0.40) and wrist strength index (r= 0.39). The positive correlation of the results in the jerk with the bench press (r=0.44), pull-ups (r=0.37) and medicine ball throwing (r=0.44) test rates indicates the high importance of the absolute and relative strength of the arms muscles.
At the age of 15-16 years, the results in the push significantly correlate with the strength of the left wrist (r=0.42), medicine ball throwing test rate (r=0.52) and number of squats performed with 50% of maximum weight for 2 minutes (r=0.49). The results in the jerk at this age also closely correlate with the muscle strength indices - flexors of the right (r=0.44) and left (r=0.41) arms, deadlift dynamometry (r=0.57) test rate and the time of hanging on the horizontal bar (r=0.59).
Conclusion. Competitive success rates in the age groups are significantly dependent on the body anthropometric characteristics; absolute strength of the trunk/ limbs extensor muscles; wrist strength and explosive endurance; explosive strength of the leg/trunk extensor muscles; and relative strength of the arms extensor muscles. The competitive success rates in the weightlifting groups were found age-specific, with a strength endurance found increasingly important for the competitive success rates with age. 

References

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Corresponding author: simen.vladimir@yandex.ru

Abstract
The study analyzes competitive success rates versus physical development and physical fitness indices of 11-17 year-old weightlifters in kettlebell sport. Sampled for the study were 98 male weightlifters of the following age groups: 10-11 year-old (n=24); 12–13 year-old (n=17); 14–15 year-old (n=32); and 16–17 year-old (n=25) groups. The subjects were tested for the physical development (body mass, body length, shoulder length, wrist length, pelvis width, vital capacity, wrist dynamometry, deadlift dynamometry, Kettle index) and physical fitness (speed-strength, strength, strength endurance, movement coordination qualities, overall endurance and flexibility); versus the competitive success rates in the republican classical combined tournaments. A linear correlation method was used to rate the correlation between the competitive success, physical development and physical fitness rates. It was found that the competitive success rates in the age groups are significantly dependent on the body anthropometric characteristics; absolute strength of the trunk/ limbs extensor muscles; wrist strength and explosive endurance; explosive strength of the leg/trunk extensor muscles; and the relative strength of the arms extensor muscles. The competitive success rates in the weightlifting groups were found age-specific, with a strength endurance found increasingly important for the competitive success rates with age.