Special endurance building model for junior boxers

PhD, Professor S.M. Obukhov
Surgut State University, Surgut

Keywords: endurance, speed-strength endurance, oxidizing resource, fast muscle fibers.

Background. Overall endurance in boxing may be viewed as a basis for other sport-specific forms of endurance, including speed-strength endurance. The endurance building process may be interpreted as the growing oxidizing-preventing bodily working ability achieved by aerobic trainings with a special priority to the cardiovascular system and blood circulation system performance as these are the key oxygen transportation systems; and relevant muscle groups as the energy-consuming elements. A special emphasis in the modern boxing is made on the muscle groups engaged in the footwork and punches in aerobic trainings.

Aerobic performance is mostly rated by the maximal oxygen consumption indicative of the oxygen transportation (respiratory, cardiovascular system and blood circulation) system functionalities and anaerobic threshold indicative of both the oxygen transportation and consumption system performances.

It should be mentioned that the leading sport specialists seriously differ in their opinions on the special (speed, strength, static) endurance securing mechanisms [3, 4]. This means that the issue is still to be studied to improve the training systems. Special endurance may be defined as the muscular fitness for the sport-specific competitive performance [1] that depends both on the oxygen transportation systems and quantities of mitochondria and capillaries in the key muscle groups [5-7] ratable by the anaerobic threshold levels.

Modern training systems offer a wide variety of the special endurance building tools albeit further research is still needed to analyze the endurance building mechanisms and promising training models. Thus the overall endurance (and the oxygen transportation system capacity) building systems offer different cyclic exercises conditional on (1) at least 2/3 of the muscles being engaged; (2) sub-maximal work time up to a few hours; and (3) heart rate of 140-150 beats per min to increase capillarization and oxidizing potential of the working muscle groups.

Furthermore, special endurance in boxing may be trained by extended (3min+) rounds with shorter rest breaks, plus intensive pad work with the coach [2]. The process may be facilitated by the altitude trainings to increase the blood hemoglobin (i.e. oxygen transportation capacity). A special priority in the special endurance trainings will be given by the high-intensity cycled practices to increase mitochondria in the fast muscle fibers critical for the competitive performance.

The fast muscle fibers, as compared to the slow muscle fibers, are stronger and faster flexing fibers albeit less tolerant to fatigue; and they are able to hypertrophy faster – with this ability employed by many fast muscle fibers strength training methods. The fast muscle fibers are often referred to as the white/ glycolytic muscle fibers classified into Class 2a and Class 2b. The Class 2a fibers are also called interim/ transitional/ oxidizing-glycolytic since they are slower oxidized that the Class 2b due to the higher quantities of mitochondria, with the oxidizing metabolism being used for flexion and with the fibers being oxidized slower than the Class 2b ones.

Class 2b fast muscle fibers may be defined as the glycolytic, easily tired and subject to only ATP anaerobic re-synthesis only that goes in them due to the lack of mitochondria and lower capillary indices. They are still notably stronger, faster contracting and richer in ferments responsible for anaerobic glycolysis. Many study reports argue that muscular compositions are genetically predetermined. It should be noted, however, that this holds true only for the muscular fiber flexion rate – and wrong for strength and endurance. Both of the muscle fiber types are equally found in every statistically average individual. The modern boxing sport favors the individuals with domination of fast muscle fibers due to speed being one of the key prerequisites for the competitive success, and, hence, they are preferred in selections. Individuals with low fast muscle fibers rates may also succeed in boxing although their training systems should be much different from those for the high-fast muscle fibers-tested ones.

The only things that can be changed in muscular fibers are the amount of mitochondria and micro fibers which are present in both the oxidizing and glycolytic muscle fibers. Therefore, there could be four special training systems on the whole: two for micro fibers (of two different types) and two for mitochondria. As found by Seluyanov, the micro fiber growth process is facilitated by the following 4 factors: amino acids, anabolic hormones, acidic environment and creatine; and the mitochondria growth process – by the muscle fiber activity, amino acids, hormones and oxygen supply. The training process is recommended to be dominated by the even-pace cyclic practices to prevent oxidation and production of hydrogen ions. It should be emphasized that such practices increase the amount of mitochondria only in the slow muscle fibers, whilst a speed-intensive competitive progress in the modern boxing sport is secured mostly by the fast muscle fibers and the relevant fast muscle fiber oxidizing capacity training tools.

Key requirements to the special training systems may be listed as follows: (1) sub-maximal

(80-100%) intensity of the trainings; (2) 3-10s cycles with multiple repetitions; (3) at least 1-2min long rest breaks to neutralize the lactic acid produced; (4) aerobic rehabilitation; and (5) 2-3 to 6 training sessions per week.

Such oxidation-preventing fast muscle fibers trainings are known to facilitate the increase of the mitochondria responsible for the oxidizing resource, with the fast muscle fibers making a transition from the purely glycolytic to the oxidizing-glycolytic type.

Objective of the study was to develop and test benefits of a special endurance building model for junior (15-16 year-old) boxers to improve their competitive performance.

Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were 24 junior boxers from Yermak CYORSS in Surgut split up into Experimental Group (n=12) and Reference Group (n=12), with the Experimental Group trained by a high-intensity cycled practices to increase mitochondria in the fast muscle fibers; and the Reference Group trained as required by the standard training system.

As recommended by V.N. Seluyanov, the Experimental Group trainings (6 sessions a week) were complemented by the following exercises:

– Punch simulating and freestyle tennis ball throws and catches combined with fast (1-5s) serial target/ non-target punches;

– High jump top-speed punches;

– 3 min series of 10 punches with 20s rest breaks;

– Accelerated sprints;

– 5-10kg stuffed ball throws;

– 5-8s accelerated punches with 4kg dumbbells;

– Sparring bouts;

– 5-8s shadow boxing;

– 5-8s bench presses; and

– 5-8s jumps with punches.

The first-stage (January through February) trainings were dominated by the traditional body conditioning practices with some boxing techniques excellence elements; and the second-stage (March through May) trainings gave a high priority to the special endurance building practices, with the experiment lasting for 20 weeks in total.

The special endurance progress was tested by the following pre- versus post-experimental tests: 8-10s maximal-intensity punching; 3min maximal-intensity-and-power bag punching; and prone push-ups tests. In addition, we fixed HR at the end of every round and the numbers of the technical-tactical actions per round using video replays (1920x1080 dpi, SonyXHR-NH5E video camera) of the sparring bouts.

Results and discussion. The pre-experimental tests found insignificant intergroup differences, whilst the post-experimental tests showed significant progress of the EG versus RG in the special endurance (fast muscle fibers oxidizing capacity): see Table 1 hereunder. The EG was also tested with the significantly slower post-round HR and higher technical-tactical action rates than the RG in every round of the sparring bouts.

Test

Group

Pre-exp.

Post-exp.

Growth

p

р2

р3

8-10s maximal-intensity punching

RG

28,75±2,18

29,50 ± 2,71

2,6%

p>0,05

>0,05

 

<0,001

EG

28,00±2,22

34,08 ± 2,57

21,7%

p<0,005

Prone push-ups

RG

43,17 ± 6,34

45,75 ± 5,71

5,9%

p>0,05

>0,05

<0,025

EG

42,25 ± 7,53

51,33 ± 6,72

21,4%

p<0,005

3min maximal-intensity-and-power bag punching

RG

279,75±18,53

283,25 ± 16,55

1.25%

p>0,05

>0,05

<0,15

EG

279,67±19,68

291,83 ± 18,43

4,3%

p<0,10

HR, round 1

RG

161 ± 16,94

159 ± 12,9

-1,24%

p>0,05

<0,05

<0,20

EG

172 ± 10,02

163 ± 8,42

-5,23%

p<0,025

HR, round 2

RG

172 ± 8,27

167 ± 7,6

-2,9%

p>0,05

>0,05

>0,05

EG

176 ± 5,91

165,5 ± 7,8

-5,96%

p<0,005

HR, round 3

RG

180 ± 8,66

174,5 ± 8,66

-3,1%

p>0,05

>0,05

<0,025

EG

174 ± 12,27

166 ± 8,2

-4,6%

p<0,05

Punches, round 1

RG

46,5 ± 10,1

49,25 ± 10,06

5,9%

p>0,05

>0,05

<0,025

EG

49,8 ± 7,1

57,33 ± 6,4

15,1%

p<0,025

Punches, round 2

RG

53,67 ± 3,42

55,3 ± 5,2

3,03%

p>0,05

>0,05

<0,005

EG

52,42 ± 6,9

62,4 ± 5,4

19,03%

p<0,005

Punches, round 3

RG

61 ± 5,2

61,83 ± 5,75

1,3%

p>0,05

>0,05

<0,05

EG

58,42 ± 6,09

66,83 ± 7,1

14,3%

p<0,005

 

Note: р is the pre- versus post-experimental data difference significance rate; р2 is the RG versus EG pre-experimental data difference significance rate; and р3 is the RG versus EG post-experimental data difference significance rate.

Conclusion. The study data and analyses demonstrated the 12-week explosive maximal-intensity 8-10-second exercises with 2-3min rest breaks being beneficial as verified by the EG versus RG progress in the 8-10s maximal-intensity punching test (21.7% versus 2.6%, respectively); prone push-ups test (21.4% versus 5.9%); 3min maximal-intensity-and-power bag punching (4.3% versus 1.3%); post-round HR reduction in the sparring bouts (4.6-6.0% versus 1.2-3.1%; and last-round 4.6% versus 3.1%, respectively); and technical-tactical actions per round rates (14.3-19.0% versus 1.3-5.95, with the post-3-round rates of 14.3% versus 1.3%, respectively).

References

  1. Kim V.V. Metodika trenirovki i otsenki spetsialnoy vynoslivosti studenta-boksera [Methods of training and evaluation of student boxer's special endurance]. Sverdlovsk, 1981. 32 p.
  2. Kiselev V.A. Fizicheskaya podgotovka boksera [Boxer physical training]. Study guide. Moscow: Divizion publ., 2013. 235 p.
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  4. Kurguzov G.V., Rusanov V.Ya. Metod intervalnoy trenirovki dlya povysheniya spetsialnoy rabotosposobnosti bokserov [Interval training method to improve special performance of boxers]. Boxing: Yearbook. Moscow, 1985. pp. 15-16.
  5. Obukhov S.M., Kuznetsov A.A. Dinamika silovykh i skorostno-silovykh pokazateley sportsmenov, zanimayushchikhsya karate [Dynamics of strength and speed-strength indices of karatekas]. Sovershenstvovanie sistemy fizicheskogo vospitaniya, sportivnoy trenirovki, turizma i ozdorovleniya razlichnykh kategoriy naseleniya [Efforts to improve of physical education, sports training, tourism and rehabilitation system for various categories of population] XII nat. res.-pract. conf. , v. 2. Surgut, 2012. pp. 110-113.
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  8. Sakhibov D.S., Obukhov S.M. Metodika razvitiya spetsialnoy vynoslivosti bokserov 15-16 let [Methods of development of special endurance in 15-16 year old boxers]. Sovershenstvovanie sistemy fizicheskogo vospitaniya, sportivnoy trenirovki, turizma i ozdorovleniya razlichnykh kategoriy naseleniya [Efforts to improve of physical education, sports training, tourism and rehabilitation system for various categories of population] XII nat. res.-pract. conf, Surgut, 2018. pp. 276-280.

Corresponding author: osm58_ksd@mail.ru

Abstract

The study was designed to develop and test benefits of a special endurance building model for junior (15-16 year-old) boxers to improve the competitive performance. Sampled for the study were 24 junior boxers from Yermak CYORSS in Surgut split up into Experimental Group (n=12) and Reference Group (n=12), with the Experimental Group trained by a high-intensity cycled practices to increase mitochondria in the fast muscle fibers; and the Reference Group trained as required by the standard training system. As recommended by V.N. Seluyanov, the Experimental Group trainings (6 sessions a week) were complemented by the muscle-group-specific maximal-pace 8-second repeated exercises. The first-stage trainings were dominated by the traditional physical conditioning practices with some boxing techniques excellence elements; and the second-stage trainings gave a high priority to the special endurance building practices. On the whole, the special endurance building model testing experiment lasted for 20 months. The study data and analyses demonstrated the explosive maximal-intensity 8-10-second exercises being beneficial as verified by the Experimental Group technical/ tactical progress in every round of the sparring bouts with the heart rate falls by the end of every round versus the Reference Group.