Dr.Hab., PhD, Professor L.S. Dvorkin1
Dr.Hab., Professor S.M. Akhmetov1
Dr.Hab., Professor N.I. Dvorkina1
1Kuban State University of Physical Education, Sport and Tourism, Krasnodar
Keywords: special strength trainings, elite wrestling sport, principles, sport theory, internal and external impacts.
Introduction. There is currently a number of priority areas of special strength trainings of combat athletes [1, 2].
The first area includes such methods of muscle strength training that contribute to the development of wrestlers’ ability to display highly concentrated explosive force using heavy weights (for example, during the back arch throw) [5, 6].
The second area is focused on the search for scientifically substantiated and practically approved approaches to solving of the problem of field-specific strength trainings of wrestlers using the technique of modeling of their tactical and technical actions . When developing this area, we were guided by the conviction that there are no absolute means and methods of effective special strength trainings in wrestling sports, regardless of the athletes’ sports qualification.
At the same time, special strength trainings in elite wrestling sports cannot be effective if they are not supported by heavy weights. This approach does not necessarily exclude the use of traditional, though less intense loads, but for an elite athlete non-intensive strength trainings should not prevail over intensive ones . We believe it is important to pay attention to the fact that the development of the theory of martial arts is closely related to the changes in the competitive rules in various types of wrestling.
Objective of the study was to identify the priorities for future research on special strength trainings of elite wrestlers based on a theoretical analysis.
Results and discussion. In considering the essence of special strength trainings of elite wrestlers as the most important aspect of the promising training process direction, at least three interconnected complexes requiring results-based management can be seen. This is, firstly, an external impact, namely, the athletes' attitude to the results of their sporting activities, achieved in the process of an ever-growing tough confrontation, not only in the context of international competitions, but also in Russia. Secondly, there is an internal impact, in particular the functional and psychological factors of the internal relations of the wrestlers’ body, which in many cases become decisive in terms of a fierce sports competition. Thirdly, the impact of various training options, which in many cases results from the interaction of the skills of both a trainer and a trainee - an elite athlete, and various training and recovery tools, means and methods, and loads .
Let us consider another important theoretical aspect of special strength trainings of elite wrestlers. The fundamental approach to the training process management is, in our opinion, the ability to optimize the external and internal factors of the athlete’s body relationships at a new, higher and previously predicted functional level within the system of athletic training, thus allowing for the improvement of sports results at a high degree of certainty. That is precisely the problem, when it is necessary to determine the most acceptable time for the transition of the existing system of external and internal relations of the athlete’s body to a new socio-biological level.
An important challenge modern specialists face in the field of the theory of martial arts at this stage is to find the "key" to the new scientific approaches to the training process management and thereby create the necessary prerequisites for their targeted use in practice to solve the problems of effective training of elite wrestlers. At the same time, we must realize that the transition of the system of athletic training to a higher socio-biological level should be carried out based on a strictly determined sequence and succession of planning of specific means and methods of special strength trainings of wrestlers at each stage of a long-term process.
Conclusion. The above theoretical aspects make it possible to deepen the knowledge about how to address the problem of special strength trainings of elite wrestlers to solve practical problems, provide scientific and practical substation of the training process management system in wrestling sports based on the identification of the fundamental trends (patterns) in interrelationship between physical loads used in special strength trainings and efficiency of the wrestlers’ tactical and tactical actions. The development of the theory and methodology of martial arts will make it possible to transfer the training planning (programming) procedure from the level of probable guessing to the level of objective forecasting and reasonable quantitative decisions. The logical analysis of the approaches to realization of the idea of the training process management from the standpoint of the proposed methodological platform points to other problems that require urgent solutions. In particular, training goal setting, development of a common programming strategy, its advance development, expansion and deepening of the theoretical provisions of the training system management strategy, objective forecasting of the limits of its main parameters, and current assessment of the level of development of the system. All this is deemed a prerequisite and a paramount necessity for the practical implementation of the training process management in wrestling sports.
- Verkhoshanskiy Yu.V. Gorizonty nauchnoy teorii i metodologii sportivnoy trenirovki [Horizons of scientific theory and methodology of sports training]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 1998. no. 7. pp. 41-54.
- Verkhoshanskiy Yu.V. Printsipy organizatsii trenirovki sportsmenov vysshego klassa v godichnom tsikle [Principles of elite training process design in annual cycle]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 1991. no. 2, pp. 24-31.
- Dvorkin L.S., Menshikov A.I., Ivanov I.I. Razvitie vzryvnoy sily pri pomoshchi intensivnykh otyagoshcheniy v trenirovke vysokokvalifitsirovannykh bortsov greko-rimskogo stilya [Development of explosive power using intensive exercises in training of highly skilled Greco-Roman wrestlers]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2012. no. 5. pp. 68-72.
- Dvorkin L.S., Uruymagov V.B., Ivanov I.I., Zagitov A.N. Spetsialnaya silovaya podgotovka bortsov greko-rimskogo stilya vysokoy kvalifikatsii [Special strength training of highly skilled Greco-Roman wrestlers]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kulturyi. 2008. no. 8. pp. 40-43.
- Ivanov I.I., Uruymagov V.B. Bazovaya fizicheskaya podgotovka vysokokvalifitsirovannykh bortsov greko-rimskogo stilya [Basic physical training of highly skilled Greco-Roman wrestlers]. Bazovaya fizicheskaya podgotovka cheloveka v ontogeneze [Basic physical training of man in ontogenesis] ; in 3 v. L.S. Dvorkin [ed.]. vol. 3. , v. 16: Bazovaya fizicheskaya podgotovka vysokokvalifitsirovannykh sportsmenov v razlichnykh vidakh edinoborstv [Basic physical training of highly skilled athletes in various types of martial arts]. Krasnodar: Neoglori publ., 2011. pp. 307-395.
- Rozhkovets V.V., Menshikov A.I. Nauchno-pedagogicheskie osnovaniya primeneniya dozirovannykh otyagoshcheniy dlya razvitiya vzryvnoy sily u podrostkov (na prime-re begunov na korotkie distantsii i bortsov greko-rimskogo stilya) [Scientific educational grounds for applying explosive strength building graded loads in adolescents (case study of sprinters and Greco-Roman wrestlers)]. Bazovaya fizicheskaya podgotovka cheloveka v ontogeneze [Basic physical training of man in ontogenesis]; in 3 v. L.S. Dvorkin [ed.]. vol. 3. , v. 16: Bazovaya fizicheskaya podgotovka vysokokvalifitsirovannykh sportsmenov v razlichnykh vidakh edinoborstv [Basic physical training of highly skilled athletes in various types of martial arts]. Krasnodar: Neoglori publ., 2011. pp. 113-183.
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
The article analyzes the key issues of modern special strength trainings in elite wrestling sports – that are still contradictory for the research community. Clear responses still need to be found, for example, to at least the following questions: can the high-intensity strength trainings meaningfully improve the action speed in wrestling or they rather cause an adverse effect; what are the benefits of the high-intensity short strength trainings versus the low-intensity long ones for wrestling sports; shall we find the best proportions of the special strength trainings and traditional strength trainings in elite wrestling sport; what shall be the optimal proportions of the dynamic to isometric maximal-strength trainings for elite wrestling sports etc. Therefore, at this juncture the modern wrestling sport theory and practice still need to find the core solutions to offer new developments for the elite training systems and pave the ways for the theoretical knowledge being efficiently applied to improve the elite wrestlers’ training models and tools.