Benefits of intensity-zone trainings for 17-18 year-old racing cyclists tested by aerobic/ anaerobic working capacity

Dr. of Sciences, Professor Maher Ahmed Al-Issawi1
Dr. of Sciences Ali Hamid Abdul Karim1
1Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq)

Keywords: intensity zones, Borg scale, heart rate, anaerobic exchange threshold, junior racing cyclists.

Introduction. The development of more effective training programs for junior racing cyclists, especially in hot environment, is a pressing scientific challenge. The periods of development of their special abilities are known to be the most important in the training process [4, 8]. Scholars contend the development of anaerobic endurance enables racing cyclist to maintain a high level of working capacity at critical moments of a sporting event [3].

A modern approach requires an increase in the degree of individualization of training loads, in particular, variation of the load intensity in different power zones. The Borg scale [6] helps determine an adequate degree of intensity for the training to be more effective by analyzing the daily and weekly load as an individual load pattern, which allows the body to gradually adapt and improve its capabilities, which will affect sports performance in the main competitions.

Objective of the study was to rate the aerobic and anaerobic working capacity of the 17-18 year-old racing cyclists participating in the 12 week long controlled-intensity training program.

Methods and structure of the study. The study involved 17-18 year-old racing cyclists (n=12) qualified for the Iraqi League Race on the Baghdad-Diwaniya highway (2016-2017), interns of Najda, Al Adl clubs.

Anaerobic exchange threshold rating tests were run at the Physical Education and Sport College Laboratory of Qadissiya University to outline the training intensity zones and find the optimal individual workloads [5]. Physio Flow test system was used to obtain such cardiac function rates as cardiac index and ejection fraction [1, 2, 7].

Cardiac index is a haemodynamic parameter that relates the cardiac output from the left ventricle in one minute to body surface area, thus relating heart performance to the size of an athlete. 

Ejection fraction is the portion of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the vascular bed and the portion of blood that remains in the heart. This indicator varies by gender, age, as well as the type of activity.

The test data were processed by SPSS statistical software tools.

The training module was 12 weeks long and ran from February 6 through April 30, 2017.

The principle of individualization of load intensity was taken as a key training factor upon determining the anaerobic exchange threshold for each racing cyclist. The individual training workloads were varied from the low-intensity (65% anaerobic exchange threshold) to extreme-intensity (106% anaerobic exchange threshold) rates by the heart rate readings.

The daily training workload was calculated by the median Borg’s training intensity rate multiplied by the workload time.

The traditional pedaling practices in the trainings were combined with strength building ones, with every training session preceded by warm-up flexibility exercises to prevent injuries and finalized by relaxation practices.

Results and discussion. The statistical cardiac function rates, averaged over the group of racing cyclists prior to the training cycle and after it, are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Cardiorespiratory system functionality rates and competitive success rates of racing cyclists

Parameters

Prior to the training cycle

After the training cycle

T- criterion

Sig.

(P)

Average

Mean square error

Average

Mean square error

Cardiac functionality

(ml/m2/min)

5.88

 

0.72

 

9.51

 

0.66

 

2.91

 

0.00

 

Ejection fraction (%)

81.92

 

2.50

 

85.33

 

2.06

 

3.04

 

0.01

 

Competitive success rate

(min)

35.97

1.63

30.20

1.51

8.39

0.00

Table shows the significant improvement of the cardiac functionality after the training cycle. The training module was found beneficial as verified by the increase in the performance indicators of the cardiac muscle that provides the athlete’s body with oxygen.

Therefore, individualization of training loads in terms of the circulatory system functionality, normalized to the athlete’s body surface area, is more effective at the level of improvement of special working capacity, which corresponds to the data obtained by Ammar Jassim Musallam [1].

Conclusion. The implementation of the designed intensity-zone training program aimed to develop the racing cyclists’ anaerobic endurance has led to the adaptive changes helping them continue with the load performance despite the high lactic acid level in the muscles.

References

  1. Ammar Jassim Musallam: Heart of the sportsman, Baghdad, AB Technical Printing Company Limited, 2006.
  2. Bahaa El Din Ibrahim Salameh: Dynamic Energy Representation in the Field of Sports, Cairo, Arab Thought House, 1999.
  3. Danielson Tom and Westfahl, Allisson : Simple Core-Training radsporter , Velopress , USA, 2015.
  4. Earline Dimer: Training Means and effort parameter in performance weightlifters Training, Romania, Bucharest, 2011.
  5. Friel Joe: The Cyclists Training Bible, 3rd Ed, United States, Colorado, Velo Press, 2003. 
  6. Jobson Simon  and Hopker, James: Performance Cycling, First Edition, ISBN print, 2012.
  7. Mayo Clinic Heart Book: Comprehensive Guide to Heart Health, II, Translated by Hassan Ahmad Qamhiyyat, Beirut, Lebanon, Arab Science House, 2004.
  8. Sands Robert and Linda R.: The Anthropology of Sport and Human movement, USA, Rout, Ledge, 2010.

Corresponding author:  maher_asi2000.edbs@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Abstract

The study was designed to test cardiovascular system performance in the 17-18 year old racing cyclists qualified for the Iraqi League Race. Anaerobic exchange threshold rating tests were run at the Physical Education and Sport College Laboratory of Qadissiya University to outline the training intensity zones and find the optimal individual workloads. Physio Flow test system was used to obtain the cardiac function rates and stroke volumes; with the test data processed by SPSS statistical software tools. The training module was 12 weeks long, with the training workloads individualized for the anaerobic exchange threshold rating purposes. The individual training workloads were varied from the low-intensity (65% anaerobic exchange threshold) to extreme-intensity (106% anaerobic exchange threshold) rates by the heart rate readings. Recommended individual training workloads were calculated by the median Borg’s training intensity rate multiplied by the workload time. The traditional pedaling practices in the trainings were combined with strength building ones, with every training session preceded by warm-up flexibility exercises to prevent injuries and finalized by relaxation practices. The controlled-intensity training module was found beneficial as verified by the meaningful improvements in the cardiac functionality and competitive success rates.