PhD, Associate Professor V.A. Kudinova1, 2
Dr.Hab., Professor V.Y. Karpov3
1Volgograd State Agrarian University, Volgograd
2Volgograd State Academy of Physical Education, Volgograd
3Russian State Social University, Moscow
Keywords: analysis, sport discipline, efficiency, progress, sport qualification, coaches.
Background. Global sports are getting increasingly competitive nowadays  but some of the Russian sport federation have failed to meet the challenge by efficient progress policies and, as a result, the national competitive performance in some top-ranking sport events has notably sagged. That is why the national sport community gives a special priority to the modern sport training systems that give the means to fully mobilize and employ the human resource, assets, technologies and finance [3, 5, 4] and focus the efforts on the top-priority development avenues to secure a new quality and accomplishments for the national sports [3, 2].
Objective of the study was to analyze the national sports progress statistics for the period of 2011-16 to offer efficient management decisions and policies secure further progress of the national sports.
Results and discussion. For the period of 2011-16, the national sport sector reported growth of the sport disciplines (from 104 to 159) and the actively sporting population (from 3.11 to 4.67 million) with the relevant progress in the popular physical activity (from 7.11 to 7.28 million conventional units). The sport progress for the period was rated by the relevant efficiency rating criteria, with the reported growth from 5.68 to 8.11 conv. units and growth of the coaching service efficiency rate from 142.0 to 167.7 conv. units.
Thus the Class II-III, MS and WCMS (World Class Master of Sport) qualifiers for the period were estimated to grow from 5.53 to 5.76 per coach, 65.25 to 71.73 per 1000 coaches and 8.94 to 13.11 per 1000 coaches, respectively. The Class I and CMS qualifiers, however, were reported to fall from 92.05 to 85.91 per 100 coaches for the period. Most of the progress rates were reported to grow significantly, particularly for some sport disciplines (from 103.0 to 164.2%) and Class II-III qualifications (from 33.1 to 48.7%). In 2011, for instance, the Class II-III qualifications in the track and field sports and freestyle wrestling were estimated at 655.7 thousand conv. units and 470.6 thousand conv. units, respectively; and in 2016 in artistic gymnastic, track and field sports and freestyle wrestling they were reported at 691.3, 604.5 and 496.6 thousand conv. units, respectively.
The highest progress was reported for freestyle, snowboard and track cycling (30.8, 21.9 and 21.8 conv. units, respectively) in 2011; and for bobsleigh, curling and freestyle (86.1, 61.9 and 23.0 conv. units, respectively) in 2016. Lagging behind in progress were volleyball (0.6 conv. units) and football (0.5 conv. units) in 2011; and table tennis (0.8 conv. units) and football (0.4 conv. units) in 2016.
The coaching service efficiency rate was reported the highest for freestyle (608.9 conv. units), snowboard (488.7 conv. units) and track cycling (440.6 conv. units) in 2011; and curling (9915 conv. units), bobsleigh (611.5 conv. units) and short track (467.3 conv. units) in 2016. Lagging behind in the coaching service rates were volleyball (16.5 conv. units) and futsal (19.4 conv. units) in 2011; and skeleton (11.4 conv. units) and volleyball (17.0 conv. units) in 2016.
The highest rates of Class II-III qualifiers per coach were reported for the period for swimming (15.91), trampoline (11.82) and mountaineering (11.57) sports. The highest Class I and CMS qualifiers per 100 coaches were reported for golf (238.1), artistic gymnastics (236.2) and mountaineering (184.2). Leading in the Master of Sport qualifiers per 1000 coaches were reportedly golf (285.7), track cycling (280.8) and rowing slalom (173.3) sports. And the highest World Class Master of Sport qualifications per 1000 coaches were reported for curling (150.9), bobsleigh (101.5) and short track (56.8) sports.
The highest numbers for trainees per coach (coaching service rates) were reported for swimming (58.0), softball (41.1) and sport acrobatics (40.8) in 2011; and for swimming (55.7), dance sport (45.0) and fitness aerobics (44.8) in 2016. Lagging behind in this respect were bobsleigh (12.0), sleddogs sport (16.7) and modern pentathlon (17.0) in 2011; and bobsleigh (7.1), skeleton (11.4) and track cycling (13.9) sports in 2016.
The 2016 Class II-III qualifiers were found to correlate with the total sport-specific numbers of trainees (r=0.889) and numbers of coaches (r=0,886). Generally the higher were the sport qualifications the lower was the correlation of the qualifications with the numbers of trainees and coaches – with the correlation nullified for the World Class Master of Sport qualifications. A sport discipline progress was found to correlate with the World Class Master of Sport qualifications (r=0.884) and coaching service efficiency rate (r=0.856). And the numbers of trainees per coach were found to correlate with the Class II=III qualifications (r=0.593) and the sport progress rate (r= -0.532).
We used a maximal correlation path profiling method to find the following key progress rates for every sport discipline (in the trunk part of each tree diagram): Class II-III qualifications, coaching service efficiency rate and WCMS qualifications. Qualifications matching analysis of the 2016 reporting data showed a fair matching (under 5%) of the actual and forecast Class II-III to total trainees ratios only for swimming sport. In view of the wide mismatches of the actual and forecast qualification statistics for many sport disciplines, we would offer the following management decisions to bridge the gaps in the sport progress policies and practices – classified by the trainees’ groups.
For the beginner groups, the actual numbers of trainees should reasonably exceed the estimated values (in basketball, boxing, volleyball, swimming, handball, football, judo, artistic gymnastics and weightlifting sports), with the physical and technical fitness rates systemically tested versus the valid sport standards. A special priority in the lagging-behind sport disciplines (sport acrobatics, kayaking and canoeing, track and field sports and rhythmic gymnastics) should be given to the junior prospects’ selection and retention efforts.
For the Class II-III groups, the actual numbers of trainees should reasonably exceed the estimated values (in kayaking and canoeing, sport acrobatics, artistic and rhythmic gymnastics), with the physical and technical fitness rates being systemically tested versus the valid competitive performance standards. A special priority in the lagging-behind sport disciplines (basketball, volleyball, handball, judo, weightlifting, football and judo) should be given to the training system design and management efforts.
For the Class I-CMS groups, the actual numbers of trainees should reasonably exceed the estimated values (in kayaking and canoeing, sport acrobatics and artistic gymnastics), with the physical and technical fitness rates being tested to find the potential sport leaders. A special priority in the lagging-behind sport disciplines (basketball, boxing, handball, volleyball, track and field sports, judo, swimming, artistic gymnastics, weightlifting and football) should be given to the training system individualizing models.
And for the MS and WCMS groups, the actual numbers of trainees should reasonably exceed the estimated values (in kayaking and canoeing, sport acrobatics and weightlifting sports), with a special attention to the individual competitive progress and potential. A special priority in the lagging-behind sport disciplines (basketball, boxing, handball, volleyball, swimming, track and field sports, artistic gymnastics, football and rhythmic gymnastics) should be given to the training systems being efficiently customized to the individual competitive progress rates.
Conclusion. The study data and analysis give the means to ensure a fair matching of the qualification forecasts with the actual qualification statistics; facilitate progress in different sport disciplines; and cut down the training process costs and improve its efficiency.
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Corresponding author: email@example.com
The study was designed to analyze the Russian sports progress statistics for the period of 2011-16 to find: the range of sport disciplines in progress; efficiency and effectiveness of the sports development policies and practices; skills- and sport-specific athletic progress profiles; and the trainees per trainer service numbers. A comparative analysis of the sport qualification statistics (for 2016) showed that the actual qualifications for Class I-III matched with the qualification forecasts only in swimming sport. The authors offer a set of management solutions to bridge the gaps in different sport discipline progress rates and make the qualification forecasts more accurate to match with the actual qualification statistics. The study data and analysis give the means to ensure a fair matching of the qualification forecasts with the actual qualification statistics; facilitate progress in different sport disciplines; and cut down the training process costs and improve its efficiency.