University students’ respiratory system functionality tests and analysis

PhD, Associate Professor A.S. Boldov1
PhD, Associate Professor M.V. Eremin2
PhD, Associate Professor A.V. Gusev1
PhD, Associate Professor D.M. Pravdov3
1Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow
2Russian State Social University, Moscow
3Shuya branch of Ivanovo State University, Shuya

Keywords: students, functionality, respiratory system, vital capacity, Tiffeneau test, breathing rate.

Introduction. The levels of physical and functional fitness of student youth have been studied in numerous scientific works [4, 6, 1, 2, 8]. Most authors select, redistribute and use various methods of functional testing, anthropometric measurements, biomedical measurements and physiological testing, depending on the research objectives and usability of various methods, material and technical resources and the authors' qualification [8]. This approach leads to extreme disintegration of research areas and confusion in the term base. Nevertheless, the majority of researchers adhere to a certain structure, which clearly differentiates the approaches to the study of physical and functional fitness. There are two large groups: methodical approaches to the study of the subjects’ quiescent-state functionality rates (biomedical and anthropometric measurements and indices) and those used with a certain, clearly structured motor activity (functional testing, standards-compliant diagnosis) [5].

According to the commonly recognized classification [5], one of the displays of man’s fitness level are pronounced changes in quiescent-state respiratory system functionality rates: a decrease in the frequency of breathing cycles at rest as opposed to those of untrained people, an increase of vital capacity (VC) as opposed to the proper level of vital capacity (PVC) and level of development of the bronchial tree, its throughput capacity, according to Tiffeneau test.

In addition, we should not neglect the urgent need for constant monitoring of external respiration function in its dynamics, as a clear sign of development of such physical quality as overall endurance, at one of the most important stages of human life - the stage of preparing for professional activity (as exemplified by the psychology students) [3].

Objective of the study was to study and make a comparative analysis of the respiratory system functionality median statistic values and level of development of overall endurance in psychology students.

Methods and structure of the study. The study was conducted at the premises of the Physical Education Department and Department of Health and Safety of MSUPE within the framework of implementation of the theoretical discipline "Physical Education" in the 2017/2018 academic year. Sampled for the tests were 18-21-year-old students of different departments (65 males and 252 females), although there was an increase of the age deviation, which, according to the proper level of vital capacity calculation formulas, did not have a significant impact on the studied parameters. Vital capacity was tested using the SSP spirometer (TU64-1-2267-77). Proper level of vital capacity was measured using the standard Ludwig formula with du regard to gender. Tiffeneau test (%) was also calculated using the standard formula. The presence or absence of past training experience to cultivate such physical quality aerobic "endurance" (overall endurance) was determined during oral questionnaire. It was found that they almost lacked such an experience, since all the subjects performed aerobic loads exclusively during the physical education lesson in secondary schools. All obtained numerical data were processed using the IBM SPSS Statistic Grad Pack 25.0 PREMIUM software package.

Results and discussion. The results of study of the level of the respiratory system functionality in the psychology students are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. The results of study of the respiratory system functionality level in university students

Indicators

Х

Mo

Me

Ex

As

D VC/PVC

(по Х)

Tw, at р=0.001

Young males (n=65)

VC (ml)

4533.1

4500

4500

0.28

-0.4

-408.7

4.441

PVC (ml)

4941.7

4973.4

4973.4

2.05

-0.8

Breathing rate at rest (cycles/min)

13.4

12

13

2.67

0.7

Tiffeneau test (%)

70.06

62.2

70

-1.22

-0.2

Females (n=252)

VC (ml)

3321.5

3000

3300

0.84

-0.2

-281.5

13.675

PVC (ml)

3602.9

3484.8

3593.7

7.1

-2.3

Breathing rate at rest (cycles/min)

14.3

12

14

2.4

1.2

Tiffeneau test (%)

75.88

85.7

78.9

-0.34

-0.6

ANOVA

F

at р=

h

Intergroup (Young males/Females)

VC (ml)

246.151

0.000

0.662

PVC (ml)

839.499

0.000

0.853

Breathing rate at rest (cycles/min)

2.957

0.087

0.096

Tiffeneau test (%)

7.607

0.006

0.153

There were statistically significant intergroup differences (young males/females), which, of course, were observed in almost all of the indicators presented: vital capacity (F=246.151 at p=0.000 and h=0.662); proper level of vital capacity, where the differences were even more significant (F=839.499 at p=0.000 and h=0.853); Tiffeneau test (%), where the differences were significant (F=7.607 at p=0.006) but less pronounced (h=0.153). Only the quiescent-state breathing rate (cycles/min) was statistically insignificant and unpronounced (F=2.957, p=0.087 and h=0.096). This suggests that, with significant differences in the actually measured vital capacity rates, the sample belonged to a statistically significant general population of students. In addition, and unfortunately, due to practically unpronounced and insignificant intergroup differences in one of the main indicators of respiratory system performance - overall endurance, a strongly pronounced uniformity was observed – young males and females slightly differed from each other.

Based on the intragroup differences in the averaged descriptive statistical data, we can state that the group of young males was more homogeneous in terms of the actual vital capacity (X=4533.1 at Ex=0.28 and As=-0.4) rather than in terms of proper level of vital capacity (X=4941.7 at Ex=2.05 and As=-0.8), which indicates that the group leans towards lower proper level of vital capacity rates. At the same time, both the first and second indicators (VC/PVC) are significantly homogeneous in terms of modal and median data (VC: Mo=4.500 and Me=4.500; PVC: Mo=4973.4 and Me=4973.4). There is a slightly different picture in terms of the presented VC and PVC indicators in the group of females - the group is less homogeneous in terms of the averaged statistical data: in fact, VC (X=3321.5 at Ex=0.84 and As=-0.2) tends towards normal distribution, whereas PVC (X=3602.9 at Ex=7.1 and As=-2.3) tends towards lower values. This intragroup heterogeneity in terms of VC and PVC was also confirmed by the modal/median statistics (VC: Mo=3000 and Me=3.300; PVC: M =3484.8 and Me=3593.7).

In terms of the averaged intragroup statistical data on the quiescent-state breathing rate (cycles/min) and Tiffeneau test (%) in the young males and females, a statistically significant absence of any deviations from the standardized norms was detected (BRrest=12-16 cycles/min; Tiffeneau test = >70%). The quiescent-state breathing rate test rates in the young males (X=13.4 at Ex=2.67 and As=0.7) indicated a downward trend, which was confirmed by the modal/median data (Mo=12 and Me=13); and in the females, BRrest (X=14.3 at Ex=2.4 and As=1.2) tended decrease even more, thus approaching the levels of the young males, which was also confirmed by the modal/median data (Mo=12 and Me=14). In terms of the Tiffeneau test (%), the averaged statistical data obtained in the group of young males indicated a threshold state ​​(X=70.06), although with an upward trend (Ex=-1.22 and As=-0.2), as confirmed by the modal and median data (Mo=62.2 and Me=70). In the group of females, the picture was more positive – in terms of the averaged statistical data (X=75.88 at Ex=-0.34 and As=-0.6) the females did not approach the threshold values, as confirmed by the modal and median data (Mo=85.7 and Me=78.9).

Going forward with the comparison of the averaged statistical data and regulatory levels of development of such a physical quality as "overall endurance", it should be noted that the measured proper level of vital capacity rate (ml) will act as an averaged norm for the actually measured vital capacity (ml). Therefore, we calculated and verified another intragroup value (DVC/PVC (X)), which showed an insufficiently developed aerobic "endurance" (overall endurance). In the group of young males, DVC/PVC(X)=-408.7, as confirmed by the Wilcoxon T-test for unrelated samples (Tw=4.441 at p=0.001). Just the same picture, although less pronounced, was observed in the group of females (DVC/PVC(X)=-281.5), which was also confirmed (Tw=13.675 at p=0.001).

Conclusions:

  • The respiratory system functionality and overall endurance was tested low and gender-unspecific in all psychology students.
  • There were no statistically significant differences in the gender subgroups in the quiescent-state breathing rates (cycles/ min) indicative of the subjects’ physical fitness.
  • The psychology male students, as opposed to the females, generated negative-to-threshold test rates in the Tiffeneau test (bronchial tree development and throughput capacity rating), with a minor improvement trend.

References

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Corresponding author: vu2014@mail.ru

Abstract

Success of the academic educational service largely depends on the overall endurance and health including the respiratory system functionality. The study was designed to make a comparative analysis of the respiratory system functionality test rates in psychology students versus the median statistic values for the age group. Sampled for the tests were 18-21 year old psychology students. The respiratory system functionality and overall endurance was tested low and gender-unspecific. The study has not found any significant differences in the gender subgroups in the quiescent-state breathing rates (cycles/ min) indicative of physical fitness. The Tiffeneau (bronchial tree development and throughput capacity rating) test of the male subgroups generated negative-to-threshold test rates with a minor improvement trend.