PhD, Associate Professor V.N. Feofanov1
PhD, Associate Professor A.S. Boldov2
PhD, Associate Professor A.V. Gusev2
1Russian State Social University, Moscow
2Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow
Keywords: aggressive and hostile responses, students, physical fitness, health, gender.
Background. Sporting lifestyles are known to be of multiple benefits for the personality development purposes albeit some sport disciplines require certain degrees of aggression limited by the relevant rules and regulations, with the aggression viewed by many as one of the most beneficial manifestations of the success motivation to have the individual resource fully mobilized for success. It is also important that modern sports give ample opportunities to vent out natural aggressiveness with virtually no serious harm to the opponent when the aggression is limited by the constructive athletic behavioral standards. It is not unusual, however, that some athletes (e.g. national footballers and martial artists) cannot keep their aggression within the sport-specific reasonable limits. Lately some sport analysts in the US have expressed their concerns about the growing incidence of spontaneous fights at student basketball competitions.
As reported by S.V. Afinogenova , conflicts and aggression are more typical for the men’s and women’s sporting groups versus the unsporting peers, with the particularly high gap in domination as one of the key aspects  of aggression. It should be mentioned that aggression is generally sport-specific, with the highest aggression rates typical for combat sports (sambo, judo, aikido etc.) and the lowest for track and field, skiing and many other sports. Findings of the study by N.A. Soboleva, V.R. Gillem, L.T. Mayorova and V.B. Antipin , however, were contrary on fact. They reported the aggregate aggressiveness and hostility test rates being higher in the unsporting students versus their sporting peers; with the unsporting males found to vent their aggression in physical forms and unsporting females – in accusations and touchiness. They also underlined that the females tend to focus their hostility on the male peers [2, 5]. These facts urge the issues of aggressive behaviors being analyzed on a more comprehensive basis .
Objective of the study was to analyze the gender-specific aggression and hostility versus physical fitness test rates in the students attending traditional physical fitness and volleyball groups.
Methods and structure of the study. We used the Bassa-Darkey aggression and hostility testing scales for the purposes of the study. Sampled for the study were the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education students (n=25) split up into 5 groups of 5 people each: (1) 20-21-year-old women’s physical fitness group (WPF); (2) 20-21-year-old men’s physical fitness group (MPF); (3) 18-21-year-old women’s volleyball group (WV); (4) 18-21-year-old men’s volleyball group (MV); and (5) 19-24-year-old unhealthy men’s group (UM).
Results and discussion. Given on Figure 1 hereunder are the physical-fitness-, health- and age-specific aggression and hostility test rates.
Figure 1. Physical-fitness-, health- and age-specific aggression and hostility group test rates.
The women’s physical fitness group was tested with normal/ medium aggression/ hostility rates; the men’s physical fitness group was also tested with mostly normal responses on both scales with some exclusions for irritability, verbal aggression and the aggregate aggression rates that were higher than in their female peers. The women’s volleyball group was tested with the relatively high irritability and verbal aggression rates, with all the other responses found within the norm. The men’s volleyball group was tested with the relatively high verbal aggression and guilt, with all the other responses found within the norm. And the unhealthy men’s group was tested with the dominant medium responses with the relatively high verbal aggression, low touchiness and guilt.
The test data analysis showed the aggressive and hostile responses in the students of different health and physical fitness groups being gender-unspecific in the physical fitness and volleyball groups. And analysis of the unhealthy versus healthy men’s group test data showed insignificant differences in some of the aggression rates. We also tested the volleyball groups (6.2 and 5.8 for the men and women, respectively) with significantly higher gilt rates than the physical fitness groups (5.4 and 5.6 for men and women, respectively) and unhealthy men’s group (3.4). The physical fitness groups, both men and women’s (4.8 and 4.6, respectively) and volleyball groups (4.4 and 4.4) were all tested very low on the suspicion scale – in contrast to the highly suspicious unhealthy men’s group (5.8). We believe that the unhealthy men’s group and men’s physical fitness group are more prone to suspicion connected with their progress in the trainings. The men’s volleyball groups were tested with the relatively high feelings of guilt, i.e. responsibility for the own errors in the game.
Conclusion. On the whole, the aggressive and hostile responses in students of different health/ physical fitness groups were tested gender-unspecific, with the differences found insignificant – probably due to the limited sample.
- Afinogenova S.V. Biologicheskiy i psikhologicheskiy pol v svyazi s professionalnymi i sportivnymi interesami v podrostkovom i yunosheskom vozraste [Biological and psychological gender in connection with professional and sports interests in adolescence and youth]. PhD diss.. St. Petersburg, 2007. 144 p.
- Boldov A.S., Gusev A.V., Karpov V.Yu. Formirovanie interesa k fizkulturno-ozdorovitelnoy deyatelnosti u studentov spetsialnykh meditsinskikh grupp [Motivating special health group students for health and fitness activities]. Moscow: Perspektiva publ., 2017. 131 p.
- Karpov V.Yu. Pedagogicheskoe vozdeistvie sredstv fizicheskoy kultury i sporta na vospitanie mezhlichnostnogo obscheniya i professionalnogo vzaimodeistviya studentov [Pedagogical impact of physical education and sports on building interpersonal communication and professional interaction of students]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2004. no. 12. P. 49.
- Soboleva N.A., Gill V.R., Mayorova L.T., Antipin V.B. Osobennosti proyavleniya agressii u studentov, zanimayushchikhsya i ne zanimayushchikhsya sportom [Features of aggression display in sporting and non-sporting students]. Psikhopedagogika v pravookhranitelnykh organakh. 2010. no. 2. pp. 30-33.
- Shapoval I.A., Glazeva M.A., Feofanov V.N. Osnovy psikhologo-pedagogicheskoy korrektsii [Basics of psychological and pedagogical correction]. Study guide. ME RF, OSU. Orenburg: OSPU publ., 2004. 235 p.
- Boldov A.S., Gusev A.V., Karpov V.Yu. Phonosemantic analysis of the attitudes of psychology students towards physical exercise and sports. Proc. Economic and Social Development, 25th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – "XVII International Social Congress (ISC-2017)", 30-31 October 2017, Moscow, 2017. pp. 364-370.
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The study analyzes the gender-specific aggression and hostility (using the Bassa-Darkey hostility test) versus physical fitness test rates in the students attending traditional physical fitness course and volleyball groups. Sampled for the study were the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education students (n=25) split up into 5 groups of 5 people each.
The study tested the female traditional physical fitness groups with normal (median-level) responses; and the male groups with the dominating median responses as well, with some individuals tested with the high aggression rates manifested in excessive irritability and verbal aggression. The female volleyball group was tested with the relatively high irritability and verbal aggression, with the other responses staying within the norm. The male volleyball group was tested with the high verbal aggression and guilt levels, with the other responses staying within the norm. The health-deficient male group was tested with dominating median rates in every test plus the high verbal aggression and low offense and guilt levels. On the whole, the aggressive and hostile responses in the students of different health and physical fitness groups were tested gender-unspecific, with the differences found insignificant – probably due to the limited sample.