Dr.Hab., Professor V.I. Grigoriev1
PhD A.B. Makhovikov2
PhD, Associate Professor S.A. Sidorenko2
1St. Petersburg State University of Economics, St. Petersburg
2St. Petersburg Mining University, St. Petersburg
Keywords: athleticism, diversification, capacity, efficiency, management, case technology, strength building tracks.
Introduction. The problem of modifying the concept of academic athletic training, which is urgent for physical education and sports departments, has become apparent when updating to elective physical education standards . The study is further necessitated not only by the requirements of FSES HE 3++ but also by the diversification of the types and forms of organization of physical training classes. Palliatives to the use of rapidly aging methodological tools of athleticism have become a “barrier” to the constructive application of innovative types of training. As the effectiveness of traditional methods decreases, the new approach solves the problem of the students’ inclusion through the introduction of stratified cases (English. Case- complex, package) and individual training tracks.
The search for an alternative approach, consisting of the introduction of case-technologies into athletic training, was encouraged by the lack of attraction of the students into the traditionally used weighted training sessions.
The methodological basis for the problem solution involves a number of research platforms. The algorithms of crossover technologies are worked out at a methodical level in a logical order.
First of all, it шы necessary to solve the problem of managing the adaptive resonances that would provide a selective effect on the problem body areas. These imperatives demonstrate the objective modality of elective physical education, giving the institutional form of advanced development of human qualities. The choice of cases focused on the achievement of muscular tissue hyperplasia and plastic transformations opens up additional possibilities for the methods traditionally used in higher educational institutions . The achieved stratification of strength loads increases the attractiveness of athleticism, motivates the students to the integrated development of strength qualities, mastering the technique of training with weights.
The a priori logical prerequisites enable to hypothesize that inclusion of case technologies in elective physical education classes will reduce the costs of athletic training and stimulate the students' motivation to engage in strength training. It was assumed that the combination of cases would allow individual adjustment of physical loads within the maximum-boundary values of weights. It is logical that consistent acceptance of this hypothesis should involve detection of the tasks aimed to develop individualized strength training sessions, diversify motor skills, and stimulate anabolic and hormonal processes in the muscular system of the students. The pilot project is focused on the stimulation of the metabolic processes that provide hypertrophy of muscular fibers, muscle capillarization, and growth of students' relative muscle mass.
Objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of case technologies when regulating adaptive resonances under physical loads.
Methods and structure of the study. For the purpose of the study, we examined 40 first-year students (young males aged 18.2±0.6 years) of the main department with good physical development rates. The content of elective classes with the use of case-technologies corresponded to the Federal State Educational Standard 3+. The sequence of case mastering was based on the imperatives of operational simulation F. Delavier and R. Tesch, who put forward the requirements for technical strength exercises with free weights and on simulators, sequential strengthening of the muscular system, impact on problem body areas, increasing the contractile, energy and oxidative abilities of the muscles [4, 6].
Based on the synergic effects of strength exercises, the cases were selected to design individual training routes. They determined the prospects for cross-cultural integration of the types of strength training, taken into account when setting individual tasks. It becomes possible to combine affiliated resources in the process of individualization of physical loads with due regard to the pace of adaptation. The case is affiliated to the implementation of an individual approach, formation of good attitude towards health as a value. Its constructiveness demonstrates the law of recursive processes - the educational process is focused on the harmonization of the students’ body development.
During the study, we evaluated the sliding effects on the development of strength, strength endurance, coordination abilities and flexibility. The training sessions were aimed at the plastic morphofunctional transformations of the muscular system and energy supply.
The training sessions were carried out according to the curriculum 2 times a week and lasted 90 minutes each. The total volume of classes conducted within the study framework was 144 hours. A series of dynamic observations was carried out during the year. Verification of the effectiveness of strength-building cases was determined by the induced parameters of physical development - body weight, circumference parameters (shoulder, upper arm, hip, lower leg, neck, chest, and waist), fat (FM) and muscle (MM). The testing was conducted using the analyzer “ABC-01 Medass”. Strength endurance was determined by the results in pulling up on the crossbar from the hanging position, leg raises to the crossbar, hip swing ups on the crossbar, and push-ups.
Results and discussion. The starting point for the introduction of case technologies in the educational process is the possibility to make a targeted impact on the main factors determining the pace of development of strength and strength endurance of the students with different levels of physical development .
The quality control of athletic training in this case passes from the traditional management of the results of elective physical education classes to the management of the entire process. The value of the proposed approach is in the ability of athleticism to influence the sensory properties of motility, attitude towards the growth of physical activity, improvement of mood and overall tone. This provides priority-based opportunities to improve the effectiveness of the discipline as a whole.
Of pragmatic interest are the results of the study of effect of strength exercises on the dynamics of the students’ physical development. The methodical importance of the case structure is focused on the students’ motor potential embedded in the genetic development code. The cases are distinguished by the combination of tasks and exercises with weights in a given power range. We are talking about the metabolic profile of the load, providing a phased development of joint mobility, strengthening of tendons, ligaments and muscles. The synchronization of control over the cumulative effects, determining the rate of morphofunctional adaptation of muscles to loads, was put forward as the main factor in the development of motor potential. The case reveals the mechanism of influence on the deep structures of the students' consciousness, which trigger the “generative models” of physical activity - the basis of the existential stability of the discipline. The main stimuli are as follows: improvement of external attractiveness, experiencing comfortable feelings, formation of the active life position, and growth of social success (English. SMART - to be modern) . This case demonstrates the singularity of the process, achievement of the peak trends in bodily development, adaptive changes in the physiological and bioenergetic systems (within the limits specified by FSES HE++).
The significance of the strength tracks BarbellWorkout, LB + Stretch, “Body & Mind” characterizes the stimuli of bodily development. The cultural core of the case forms the students' desire to develop muscles, achieve sustainable metabolic changes (muscle hyperplasia) and promote health.
The decisive role in the choice of a case is played by the attribute of causality, which induces the students to build basic bodily harmony. It should be noted that the corresponding adjustment of work programs to provide an individualized choice of affiliated tracks reduces the level of control stochasticity. The reference of strength training is ensured by the use of case study methods, feedback in the development of motility, cognitive and communication skills, self-control skills.
Based on the results of the analysis of physical development conducted at the beginning of the technological cycle, the problem body areas were determined. The young men’s body length - 176.1±3.2 cm, body weight - 70.2±4.1 kg, VC - 3.9±0.5 l, chest circumference - 91.1±3.2 cm, upper arm circumference - 26.5±1.6 cm; lower leg circumference - 32.2±2.1 cm; body fat mass - 15.4±2.8%, corresponding to the virility standards. When assessing the baseline strength values, the following indicators were recorded: pull-ups on the crossbar from the hanging position - 9.2±1.1 reps, hip swing ups on the crossbar - 7.7±2.3 reps, push-ups - 18.3±5.3 reps, hand dynamometry (Dmax) - 39.7±6.4 kg, lifting force - 67.6±7.3 kg.
What counts in favor of case technologies is positive results provided by the exponential enhancement of metabolic processes, muscular hypertrophy and a decrease in the corpulence of the students, as shown in the final testing. It was found that athletic training modeling based on the case technology platform leads to sustained adaptive shifts in motor skills, adaptation of the musculoskeletal system, growth of strength, capacity, and size of the main muscle groups. This is indicated by the peak trends of fixed parameters observed in the final testing. It is indicative that the achievement of plastic changes in the shoulder circumference by 6.8% (0.511), chest circumference - by 9.1% (0.652), lower leg circumference - by 7.4% (0.731), which is explained by the mechanisms of long-term adaptation to the physical loads. The data obtained are consistent with the findings of T. Bomp, who emphasized the deterministic nature of strength-building cases, which impact is manifested in the morphological, organic and biochemical shifts in the body .
The data obtained show that the use of case technologies enhances the training impact of traditional strength exercises. They demonstrate implicit, well-controlled determinations of the impact on metabolic processes in the muscles. They are explained by the manifestation of affiliations between loads and dynamics of induction of structural and enzymatic proteins, as well as the increase in the metabolizing mass of tissues and mitochondria. Therefore, training has a positive effect on the working muscle hyperplasia, plastic changes of myofibrils, volume of mitochondria and power of oxidative processes. The cascading effects of cases are displayed in the formation of power reserves based on the morphological, physiological and biomechanical adaptation. They ensure the increase of lifting force by 8.6±1.1% (t=2.2, p£0.05), strength of shoulder flexor muscles - by 7.2±1.1% (t=2.1, p£0.05), hand dynamometry (Dmax) - by 6.8±1.1% (t=2.0, p£0.05). The number of pull-ups on the crossbar from the hanging position increased by 26% (p≤0.05), hip swing ups on the crossbar - twofold (p≤0.05%, r=0.675). The conducted meta-analysis confirms the representativeness of case technologies testing in terms of academic athletic training.
Conclusions. Introduction of case technologies into elective physical education changes the prevailing ideas about athleticism – ranging from the choice of the training means to management of complex synergistically related structures. The students’ preferences in the choice of case technologies can be explained by the level of synergies that ensures the improvement of physical conditions, growth of energy resources and reserve capabilities.
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