Training microcyle planning specifics in multiannual training systems at football sport reserve academies

PhD, Associate Professor A.V. Antipov1
PhD, Associate Professor I.V. Kulishenko1
Dr.Hab., Professor V.P. Guba2
1Moscow State Regional University, Moscow
2Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow

Keywords: football, training process, sport fitness, planning, micro-cycle, workload, rest.

Background. Competitive success in modern football totally depends on the annual training cycle design and training process management efficiency [3]. One of the key goals of a football training system is to prudently plan the training micro-cycles to control the sport form so as to secure the best fitness for the key competitive events in the season [4]. Multiannual sport reserve training systems in football are generally designed to evenly increase the training process workload and intensity in each micro-cycle to attain specific goals in the special physical, technical and technical fitness building domains [5].

Analysis of the available literature on the subject shows that the training micro-cycle optimization issues have always been ranked among the key priorities by the sport science [1, 2, 6] albeit the sport analysts still differ on many issues with concern to the skills-specific physical training system designs and controls. This is the reason why the issue of the football sport reserve training micro-cycle design and content in an annual training process was taken for this study.

Objective of the study was to provide theoretical and practical grounds for the age-specific football sport reserve training micro-cycle planning in a multiannual training process at football academies.

Methods and structure of the study. The study was run in 2016-18 at Locomotive Football Academy (Moscow), with the U16-17, U13-15 and U10-12 age groups sampled for the study in compliance with the Federal Sport Training Standard for Football [7] and the valid curricula for football academies, Children and Youth Sport Schools, special Children and Youth Olympic Reserve Schools and Colleges [8]. The study was designed to develop practical grounds for the age-specific training micro-cycle planning versions with special combinations of traditional and special warm-up/ wrap-up and physical, technical and tactical training tools; and with a special priority to the training workloads and rest times in every stage of an annual training cycle. The study data and analyses showed benefits of a few versions of the football reserve training micro-cycle customized to the individual aging/ biological maturing process stages, challenges and requirements.

Results and discussion. Based on analysis of the U16-17 age group training systems, we would recommend the group training micro-cycle including 5 training days, 1 match day and 1 rest day. The training micro-cycle should start up on Tuesday to get fit for the weekend (normally Sunday) match followed by a rest day on Monday for those who played in the match.

The first day (Tuesday) training after the rest day should be of moderate intensity, starting from preparatory (10-15') and special warm-up (15-20') practices in a gym; followed by the speed- and agility-focused exercises (10-15'); then the individual techniques and tactics excelling ones (20-25'); and finished by a wrap-up practice (10').

The second day (Wednesday) training should be still of moderate intensity although a bit higher than the day before, and include the preparatory and special warm-up practices followed by the speed- and agility-focused exercises; then the teamwork techniques and tactics excelling ones; and finished by a cool down practice, with the timing being the same as above.

The third day training should prioritize the maximal-intensity and maximal-workload practices including the preparatory (10-15') and special warm-up (15-20') followed by the speed- and special-endurance-building (10-15') practices and the individual/ teamwork techniques and tactics excelling ones (20-30'); finished by a cool down practice (10').

The fourth day training should combine the moderately intensive workload and rehabilitation practices to secure the best fitness for the upcoming match, with a special emphasis on the individual/ teamwork techniques and tactics (40-45').

The day before the match training should be dominated by the low-workload and low-intensity practices with the preparatory and special warm-up follows by workouts of standard positions. And the sixth day of the micro-cycle is the hard match day.

Based on analysis of the U13-15 age group training systems, we would recommend an eased version of the above micro-cycle including 4 training days, 1 rest day prior to the match, 1 match day and 1 rest day after. The training system design in the case (in contrast to the two other age groups) shall give a special priority to the individual/ teamwork techniques and tactics mastering and excelling practices followed by the physical trainings closer to the end of each training session.

The first day (Tuesday) training after the rest day should be middle-intensive, starting from preparatory (10-15') and special warm-up (20-25') practices followed by the individual tactics (25-30'), speed and agility (10-15') excelling trainings; and finished by a cool down practice (10'). The second day (Wednesday) training should be a bit higher-intensity than the day before, with a special emphasis on the speed-strength (15-20') practices. The third day (Thursday) training should prioritize the maximal-workload special-endurance building practices (25-30'). On the fourth day, the workload shall be slightly decreased to focus on the teamwork tactics (20-25') and special endurance building (25-30') practices. And the fifth day is the rest day to rehabilitate and get ready for the match on the sixth day of the training micro-cycle.

Based on analysis of the U10-12 age group training systems, we would recommend the totally different training version that includes 2 training days (Monday, Tuesday), 1 rest day (Wednesday), 2 training days, 1 rest day and a match day.

The first day training should be middle-intensive, with the preparatory (10-15') and special warm-up (20-25') practices followed by the speed (10-15') practices and individual tactics (20-25') excelling ones; and finished by a cool down practice (10'). The second day (Tuesday) training should improve the individual and teamwork tactics (30-35') excelling practices. Wednesday is a rest day. Thursday training should be of moderate intensity with a special emphasis on the speed-strength-training (10-15') and the individual and teamwork tactics (30-35'). The day five training workload should be further eased to give time to the coordination qualities excelling training (5-10') with a special emphasis on the teamwork (15-20'). Saturday is a rest day, and Sunday is a match day with its maximal workloads although the match time should be shorter than for the U13-15 and U16-17 groups (95-115' versus 115-145', respectively).

Conclusion. The study data and analyses showed that the football reserve training micro-cycle shall be customized to the individual aging/ biological maturing process stages, challenges and requirements. Training systems for the senior groups shall be focused on the special physical fitness and teamwork improvement practices; whilst the lower-skilled group trainings shall make an emphasis on the individual skills and teamwork. The beginner trainings shall assign more time for rest in the middle and final periods of each training micro-cycle; and the skilled footballers shall be given full rest next day after every match.

References

  1. Alekseev V.N. Sistema upravleniya protsessom razvitiya rossiyskogo futbola v sovremennykh usloviyakh [System to control Russian football development process in modern conditions]. Doct. diss. abstr.. Maikop, 2009, 37 p.
  2. Antipov A.V., Guba V.P. Napravlennost i soderzhanie trenirovochnykh nagruzok v praktike podgotovki yunykh futbolistov [Orientation and content of training loads in youth football training practice]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2012, no. 1, P. 68.
  3. Guba V.P., Stula A.A. Metodologiya podgotovki yunykh futbolistov [Methodology for training of junior football players]. Moscow: Chelovek publ., 2015, 236 p.
  4. Guba V.P., Antipov A.V. Tekhnologiya otsenki skorostno-silovykh vozmozhnostey kvalifitsirovannykh futbolistov 15-16 let razlichnykh igrovykh amplua [Technology of evaluation of speed and strength abilities of highly skilled players aged 15-16 years having different game roles]. Fizicheskaya kultura: vospitanie, obrazovanie, trenirovka. 2017, no. 1, pp. 46-50.
  5. Guba V.P., Leksakov A.V. Teoriya i metodika futbola [Theory and methodology of football]. Textbook. Moscow: Sport publ., 2015, 566 p.
  6. Maksimenko I.G. Planirovanie i kontrol trenirovochnogo protsessa v sportivnykh igrakh [Planning and control of training process in team sports]. Lugansk: Znanie publ., 2000, 276 p.
  7. Federalny standart sportivnoy podgotovki po vidu sporta futbol. utverzhden prikazom Ministerstva sporta Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 27 marta 2013 goda no. 147 [Federal standard of sports training in football. approved by the order of the Ministry of Sports of the Russian Federation on March 27, 2013 no. 147]. Available at: http://www.garant.ru/products/ipo/prime/doc/70291040/
  8. Guba V.P. [ed.] Futbol: Programma dlya futbolnykh akademiy, detsko-yunosheskikh sportivnykh shkol, spetsializirovannykh detsko-yunosheskikh shkol olimpiyskogo rezerva i uchilishch olimpiyskogo rezerva [Football: Program for football academies, youth sports schools, specialized youth schools of Olympic reserve and Olympic reserve schools]. Moscow: Sport publ., 2015, 208 p.

Corresponding author: alexlocomotiv@mail.ru

Abstract

The article analyzes the modern training microcycle planning concepts for the U16-17, U13-15 and U10-12 age groups tested by the Locomotive Football Academy (Moscow). The study was designed to develop practical grounds for the age-specific training microcycle planning versions with special combinations of traditional and special warm-up and wrap-up and the physical, technical and tactical training tools; with a special priority to the training workloads and recreation in every stage of a yearly training cycle. The study data and analyses showed that the football reserve training microcycle planning shall be customized to the individual aging and biological maturing process stages, challenges and requirements. Training systems for the senior groups shall be focused on the special physical fitness and teamwork improvement practices; whilst the lower-skilled group trainings shall make an emphasis on the individual skills and teamwork. The beginner trainings shall assign more time for rest in the middle and final periods of each training microcycle; and the skilled footballers shall be given rest next day after every match.