Speed-strength testing and analyzing by standing jumps in volleyball

Postgraduate A.V. Losev1
Honorary Coach of the RF, Associate Professor V.Y. Schneider1
1Surgut State University, Surgut

Keywords: volleyball, special physical training, speed-strength, training process control.

Background. Competitive performance in modern team sports requires timely and efficient speed-strength-intensive responses to a wide range of game situations. Thus modern volleyball is particularly demanding to the individual jumping skills with the athletes expected to be highly skilled and successful in well-timed high jumps or controlled-height jumps with the maximal push-off rates to respond to the game situations. That is the reason why the push-offs need to be made at controlled/ variable speeds [1, 2].

The sport community has lately given a growing priority to new efficient training systems making a special emphasis on the speed-strength qualities, particularly in the team sports. It should be mentioned that answers to the question ‘Shall we jump higher or faster?’ critical for the training system design – are still unclear at this juncture.

Objective of the study was to rate the speed-strength qualities in the standing jumps for maximal height versus the push-off speed.

Methods and structure of the study. Jumping qualities under the study were tested by MLB Biomechanics Test System, with 28 academic volleyball players of different skill levels sampled for the tests. The athletes were required to jump in the tests (1) for the maximal height; (2) with the maximal push-off speed; and (3) for the 60%-maximal height.

The maximal-height test jumps were executed to achieve the highest possible distance from the ground. The maximal push-off-speed test jumps required the athletes to achieve the maximal height at the same time. And the 60%-maximal height jumps were designed to reach the 60% of the individual maximum. The subjects were offered three jumping attempts to quantify the push-off efforts in the 60%-maximal height jump. The subjects were guided in the tests by the level gauge indicating the target height level [3, 4]. Special sensors were fixed on the soles of the subjects to read the ground contact time in the push-off sequence and the jump height. The subjects were to make three attempts of the one-step running two-leg jumps with hands on the waist, with the individual average result fixed in the test record [3, 4].

Results and discussion. Given in Table 1 hereunder is the instrumental test data.

Table 1. Three jump versions: instrumental test data

Jump test

Maximal push-off speed test jump

Maximal height test jump

60%-maximal-height test jump

Jump height, m

0,38±0,11

0,48±0,12

0,31±0,07

Push-off time, ms

233±34,8

318,3±62,3

297,5±48,3

Table 2. Test data difference significance rates

Jump test

Maximal push-off speed jump versus maximal height jump

Maximal push-off speed jump versus 60%-maximal height jump

60%-maximal height jump versus maximal height jump

Jump height, m

<0,001

<0,001

<0,001

Push-off time, ms

<0,001

<0,001

<0,066

The test data and analyses may be interpreted as indicative of the maximal height and maximal push-off speed prioritizing jumps being so different in their goals that a combined maximal-height plus maximal push-off speed jump is unlikely achievable.

The difference between the maximal push-off speed jump and 60%-maximal height test jump data was estimated at 18% in favor of the former. The difference between the maximal height jump test data and maximal push-off speed test data was estimated at 26%; with the push-off speed in the maximal push-off-prioritizing jump found 27% higher than that in the 60%-maximal height test jump; and 36% higher than that in the maximal-height test jump.

Conclusion. The test data and analyses showed the need for the special physical training component of the training system being revised to step up the volleyball players’ speed-strength qualities and build up the relevant skills with an emphasis on the match tactics versatility. Modern tactics applied in volleyball and some other team sports give a high priority to jumping skills of the players for success of the game plans. In view of the fact that the jumping qualities are determined by both the lower limb strength and neuro-muscle functionality rates, the relevant physical training components shall make a special emphasis on the lower limb speed-strength qualities with due consideration for the range of preferred team game tactics.

References

  1. Belyaev A.V. Pryizhkovaya podgotovka kvalifitsirovannykh voleybolistov v podgotovitelnom periode: metodicheskaya razrabotka dlya trenerov klubnykh komand i DYuSSh [Jumping training of skilled volleyball players in preparatory period: methodical development for club team and youth sports school coaches]. Moscow: ARVF publ., 2004. 17 p.
  2. Furmanov A.G. Podgotovka voleybolistov [Volleyball training]. Minsk: МЕТ publ., 2007, 329 p.
  3. Domire Z.J., Challis J.H. Maximum height and minimum time vertical jumping. J. Biomech, 2015, no. 48, pp. 2865–2870.
  4. Walsh M., Arampatzis A., Schade F., Bruggemann G.P. The effect of drop jump starting height and contact time on power, work performed, and moment of force. J. Strength Cond. Res., 2004, no.  18, pp.  561– 566.
  5. Shlyakhtov V.N.  Mioboost" system application to improve athletic motor skills. Theory and Practice of Physical Culture. 2017, no 1, 23  p.
  6. Samsonova A.V., Ponomarev G.N., Tsipin L.L., Bogdanov O.A. Strength training biomechanics concept for athletic training systems.  Theory and Practice of Physical Culture, 2018,  no 8, 21p.

Corresponding author: a.v.losev.07@gmail.com

Abstract

Objective of the study was to provide a speed-strength testing and analyzing toolkit with application of the maximal-height and-push-off-speed prioritizing standing jumps in volleyball skills tests and trainings. Sampled for the experiment were 28 athletes whose jumping qualities were tested by MLB Biomechanics Test System. The athletes were required to jump in the tests (1) for the maximal height; (2) with the maximal push-off speed; and (3) for the 60%-maximal height. Tests under the study were designed to profile the lower limb speed-strength operation patterns versus the jump goals (height or push-off speed). The test data and analyses showed the need for the special physical training component of the training system being revised to step up the volleyball players’ speed-strength qualities and build up the relevant skills with an emphasis on the match tactics versatility.