Special physical training system design for initial specialization stage in football

PhD O.V. Zlygostev1
PhD, Associate Professor S.A. Tatyanenko1
Dr.Hab., Professor, Honored Worker of Higher School of the Russian Federation V.P. Guba2
1Tobolsk Industrial Institute, branch of Tyumen Industrial University, Tobolsk
2Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow

Keywords: football, training, sport specialization, purposeful modular design, physical qualities.

Background. Initiatives to improve training process effectiveness in modern youth football give a special priority to the relevant training methods and tools to step up the special physical fitness [2, 5]; with a special role played by the speed-strength building ones – critical for the competitive progress [1, 4]. Having analyzed the relevant theoretical and practical reference literature on the subject [1, 3, 5] we found the 12-14 year old age group being the most versatile in the speed-strength qualities and sensitive to the relevant specific training tools. It is the individual background speed strength qualities profiling tests that should be used as a basis for the individualized speed-strength-prioritizing training models for this age group. Therefore, we designed for the purposes of the study a customizable (differentiated) training system with a special priority to the speed-strength qualities including the separate strength-, speed-and speed-strength-building components.
Objective of the study was to offers and tests benefits of a special individualized speed-strength prioritizing physical training system for the beginner specialization stage in youth football.
Methods and structure of the study. To test benefits of the new special speed-strength prioritizing physical training system, we sampled for the model testing experiment the 12-14 year old football players from the Children and Youth Sport School (CYSS) in Tobolsk, Tyumen Oblast, and split them up into three Experimental Groups (EG) and one Reference Group (RG), with the latter trained as required by the standard training system. Junior footballers were qualified for the three EG based on the background strength and speed-strength test rates obtained by the strain gauge tests as follows. EG1 was composed of the subjects tested with the natural high speed-strength rates i.e. the so-called ‘fast’ athletes; EG2 was composed of the subjects leading in the maximal strength test rates; and EG3 – of the mid-rated ‘universal’ subjects, i.e. with the middle strength and speed-strength test rates. Each of the EG was trained in the new special speed-strength prioritizing physical training system of our design [6].
The key role for the speed-strength training in the new model was played by the special training modules dominated by the speed-, strength- and speed-strength-building practices, with every module offering unspecific/ specific ball handling sets of practices. The new categorical speed-strength training modules were included in an annual training cycle on a customizable basis.
Results and discussion. Having analyzed the training progress in the categorical experimental groups, we found the target qualities dependent on the individual speed-strength test profiles and priorities of the training systems: see Figure 1 hereunder.
Maximal strength normally remains unclaimed in actual football matches albeit we tested this quality as one of the key speed-strength constituents. Maximal muscular strength was tested to grow in every group, with a special progress achieved by the ‘strong’ EG2 (р<0.01) and ‘universal’ EG3 (р<0.05); whilst the RG was also tested with a significant (р<0.05) progress in this aspect. The ‘fast’ EG1 maximal strength was also found to grow in the same manner. On the whole, leading in the maximal strength growth rates was EG2 (14.7%) followed by EG3 (12%) and RG (11.1%).
The maximal strength reach time (speed strength) was found to be the least changeable by the training system. It was tested to significantly fall in the ‘fast’ EG1 by 0.08s (17.8%). ‘Strong’ EG2 (р<0.01) and ‘universal’ EG3 were tested with the lesser maximal strength reach time falls of 5.8% and 12%, respectively; versus the RG fall rate of 0.05s (7.9%).


Figure 1. Test rate variations in the beginner footballers over the annual training cycle

The strength gradient was found to grow fast in every EG, with the highest growth rate of 33.5 kg/s (26.3%, р=0.01) marked by the ‘fast’ EG1 due to its background high speed qualities; followed by EG3 with the strength gradient of 25.6 kg/s (23.9%, р<0.01); and EG3 with the strength gradient of 20.6 kg/s (20.4%). The RG was tested with the lowest absolute/ relative strength gradients of 19.4 kg/s and 18.9%, respectively.

Furthermore, EG1 was tested with the highest and significant (р=0.01) startup strength growth rate of 37 kg/s (26.4%); followed by EG3 with the startup strength growth rate of 24.9 kg/s (20.1%, р<0.01); EG2 with the startup strength growth rate of 17.4 kg/s (15.5%); and RG with the absolute/ relative startup strength growth rates of 15.2 kg/s and 13.2%. respectively.
Conclusion. The strain gauge tests showed benefits of the special individualized speed-strength prioritizing physical training system of our design for the beginner specialization stage in youth football as verified by the strength gradient growth rates versus those achieved by the standard training system non-customizable to the individual strength/ speed predispositions. Therefore, trainings at the beginner specialization stage in youth football may be recommended to be designed on a modular basis, with the modules giving a special priority to the speed-, strength- and/or speed-strength-building practices.

References

  1. Antipov A.V. Formirovanie spetsialnykh skorostno-silovykh sposobnostey 12-14-letnikh futbolistov v period polovogo sozrevaniya [Building special speed-strength abilities of 12-14-year-old footballers in adulthood]. PhD diss.. Moscow, 2002, 126 p.
  2. Guba V., Stula A., Kromke K. Podgotovka futbolistov v vedushchikh klubakh Evropy [Training process in leading football clubs of Europe]. Moscow: Sport publ., 2017, 272 p.
  3. Guba V., Skripko A., Stula A. Testirovanie i kontrol podgotovlennosti futbolistov [Testing and monitoring of footballers' fitness]. Moscow: Sport publ., 2016, 168 p.
  4. Zlygostev O.V. Modulno-tselevoe proektirovanie skorostno-silovoy podgotovki futbolistov na etape nachalnoy sportivnoy spetsializatsii [Modular target design of speed-strength training of footballers at initial sports specialization stage]. PhD diss.. Tula, 2013, 140 p..
  5. Seluyanov V. N., Sarsaniya S.K., Sarsaniya K.S. Fizicheskaya podgotovka futbolistov [Physical training of football]. Moscow: TVT Divizion publ., 2004, 192 p.
  6. Guba V.P. [ed.] Futbol: Programma dlya futbolnykh akademiy, detsko-yunosheskikh sportivnykh shkol, spetsializirovannykh detsko-yunosheskikh shkol olimpiyskogo rezerva i uchilishch olimpiyskogo rezerva [Football: program for football academies, youth sports schools, specialized children and youth sport schools of Olympic reserve and Olympic reserve sport schools]. Moscow: Sport publ., 2015, 208 p.

Corresponding author: oleg_zlig@mail.ru

Abstract
Initiatives to improve training process efficiency and effectiveness in modern youth football give a growing priority to the relevant training methods and tools to step up the special physical fitness; with a special role played by the speed-strength building ones – critical for the competitive progress [1, 4]. The study offers and tests benefits of a special speed-strength prioritizing physical training system design for the beginner specialization stage in youth football. The model was designed on a purposeful modular basis with an emphasis on the speed-strength training component. Sampled for the model testing experiment were the 12-14 year old football players from the Children and Youth Sport School in Tobolsk, Tyumen Oblast, split up into three Experimental Groups (EG) and one Reference Group (RG), with the latter trained as required by the standard training system. The key role for the speed-strength training in the new model was played by the special training modules dominated by the speed, strength and speed strength building practices, with every module offering unspecific and specific ball handling sets of practices. The new categorical speed-strength training modules were included in an annual training process cycle on a customizable basis. The model testing experiment proved its benefits as verified by the EG significant progress versus the RG in the speed-strength qualities and competitive performance over the annual training cycle.